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Running head: APPROACH TO CARE 1Benchmark – Nursing Process: Approach to CareGrand Canyon University: NRS-410V September 26, 2019
APPROACH TO CARE 2Benchmark – Nursing Process: Approach to CareCancer can cause many different symptoms. If these symptoms do not subside and last for a couple of weeks, the doctor will most likely order testing to find out the cause of the symptoms. Cancer can also be suspected based off the results of a physical examination or screening tests. In some cases, cancer can be found accidentally through x-rays and other diagnostic tests that were obtained for an injury or for other reasons. Screening tests are used to detect the possibility that a disease is present before symptoms occur. Screening tests usually are not definitive, and results are confirmed or disproved with further examinations and tests (Gale, 2018). These include the Pap test, mammography, and colonoscopy (Screening Tests for Cancer, 2018). When cancer is suspected, diagnostic tests are then ordered. The doctor may order lab tests, scans, or other tests or procedures such as a biopsy to tell for sure if you have cancer. Lab tests of blood, urine, or tissue samples can be ordered to measure certain substances in the body that can indicate cancer. Imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI’s, and x-rays can help doctors see if there is a tumor present (How Cancer Is Diagnosed, 2019). A biopsy is a procedure where a sample of tissue is taken with a needle, with endoscopy, with surgery, and other ways. The sample is then observed and tested to see if it is cancerous or not. After a positive diagnosis of cancer is made, the cancer will be staged. Cancer is staged in order to describe how advanced thecancer has become. Criteria that is included in cancer staging is how big it is and whether it has spread to neighboring tissues or more distantly to lymph nodes or other organs (Gale, 2018). Determining the cancer stage is important to assess prognosis and determine the best treatment plan for the patient. Each type of cancer has its own stage groups. There are either four or five stage groups per cancer that are ranked by Roman numerals from either stage 0 or stage I to stageIV. Cancer that cannot spread to distant sites is rated as stage 0, small primary tumors that have
APPROACH TO CARE 3not spread to lymph nodes is stage I, larger or more extensive tumors with or without cancer in

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