– Earliest species occurred 2 million years ago at Olduvai Gorge and Lake
Turkana in Africa.
Possibly made the first stone tools.
Homo habilis –
(2.2-1.6 mya) smaller posterior dentition although still a powerful
chewer. Smaller overall tooth size, larger cranial capacity (500-700cc). Created and used
Homo rudolfensis –
(1.9 mya) smaller brow ridge, with a flatter, more vertical face. No
Smaller posterior than anterior teeth. Cranial capacity of 775 cc.
Homo ergaster –
(1.7 mya) had longer legs and was taller than other species.
capacity of 850cc.
Ranged throughout eastern and northern Africa.
Had many of the
traits of a hunter-gatherer population; resource exploitation, tool making, complex plant
and animal processing skills.
All suggest forms of vocal or gestural language.
Homo erectus –
(1.8 – 200,000 ya) First to move out of Africa and into the Middle East
Has protruding jaws with large molars, no chin, thick brow ridges, and a long
Cranial capacity of 800-1300cc.
Evident genetic drift from forms of
tools, long-term cave habitation.
First example is
, found by Eugene Dubois.
Homo heidelbergensis –
(400,000 ya) are thought of as archaic homo sapiens.
brow ridge and vertical face.
Cranial capacity 1500cc.
Less robust skeletons and teeth.
Studies of burned remains indicate cannibalism.
Homo neandertalensis –
(250,00 – 30,000 ya) last species to diverge from the human
line prior to modern humans.
Primarily cold adapted, with short, stocky bodies.
capacity averaging 1450cc but as large as 1800cc or more.
Had some form of spoken
Homo sapiens –
face is smaller in relation to the brain.
Cranial capacity of
forehead rises sharply, brow ridges are small, chin is prominent.
the skeleton is gracile, bones are lighter and smaller, without loss in overall size.
Migrated into every region in the world.
Produced fine artwork such as beads, ivory carvings, and cave paintings.
Homo floresiensis –
Also known as the hobbits, the most controversial acedemic debate
in modern archaeology.
Pathologically they represent Homo sapiens.
Examples of the
“island effect” in which a species evolves without outside influences due to being
contained on an island.
Oldowan tools –
consisted mostly on crude stone chopping tools.
Created and used by
Homo habilis almost 2 mya.
What is so important about tools?