Archaeology Exam 2

Archaeology Exam 2 - Genus Homo Earliest species occurred 2...

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Genus Homo – Earliest species occurred 2 million years ago at Olduvai Gorge and Lake Turkana in Africa. Possibly made the first stone tools. Homo habilis – (2.2-1.6 mya) smaller posterior dentition although still a powerful chewer. Smaller overall tooth size, larger cranial capacity (500-700cc). Created and used Oldowan chopper tools Homo rudolfensis – (1.9 mya) smaller brow ridge, with a flatter, more vertical face. No sagital crest. Smaller posterior than anterior teeth. Cranial capacity of 775 cc. Homo ergaster – (1.7 mya) had longer legs and was taller than other species. Cranial capacity of 850cc. Ranged throughout eastern and northern Africa. Had many of the traits of a hunter-gatherer population; resource exploitation, tool making, complex plant and animal processing skills. All suggest forms of vocal or gestural language. Homo erectus – (1.8 – 200,000 ya) First to move out of Africa and into the Middle East and Asia. Has protruding jaws with large molars, no chin, thick brow ridges, and a long low skull. Cranial capacity of 800-1300cc. Evident genetic drift from forms of ergaster . Domesticated fire, used Archeulean tools, long-term cave habitation. First example is Java man , found by Eugene Dubois. Homo heidelbergensis – (400,000 ya) are thought of as archaic homo sapiens. Smaller brow ridge and vertical face. Cranial capacity 1500cc. Less robust skeletons and teeth. Studies of burned remains indicate cannibalism. Used Archeulean tool industry. Homo neandertalensis – (250,00 – 30,000 ya) last species to diverge from the human line prior to modern humans. Primarily cold adapted, with short, stocky bodies. Cranial capacity averaging 1450cc but as large as 1800cc or more. Had some form of spoken language. Mousterian tool industry. Homo sapiens – (150,000 ya) face is smaller in relation to the brain. Cranial capacity of 1040-1595cc. forehead rises sharply, brow ridges are small, chin is prominent. Overall the skeleton is gracile, bones are lighter and smaller, without loss in overall size. Migrated into every region in the world. Sophisticated Upper Paleolithic tool industry. Produced fine artwork such as beads, ivory carvings, and cave paintings. Homo floresiensis – Also known as the hobbits, the most controversial acedemic debate in modern archaeology. Pathologically they represent Homo sapiens. Examples of the “island effect” in which a species evolves without outside influences due to being contained on an island. Oldowan tools – consisted mostly on crude stone chopping tools. Created and used by Homo habilis almost 2 mya. Osteodontokuratic tools What is so important about tools?
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What areas of the brain seem to have developed most in members of the genus Homo? What is important about these
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course ANTHROPOLO 024 taught by Professor Dude during the Spring '10 term at UVM.

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Archaeology Exam 2 - Genus Homo Earliest species occurred 2...

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