NotesAll[1] - FULL LECTURE NOTES b y David Underhill for:...

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1 FULL LECTURE NOTES by David Underhill for : Western Civilization II – Major Callahan – Fall 2004 Background 25 August 2004 (Lecture #01) Statebuilding and War (~1715) European conflict began somewhat global as it spread to the colonies Peripheral strategy o Finance a continental power o Prevent enemies from using the sea o Wage peripheral campaigns to force nations to spread thin and lose money o England grabs colonies while other countries destroy each other Rising Ambitions in Eastern Europe economy moves backwards towards the feudal system; peasants kept as serfs Peter the Great modernized Russia and conquered much territory – convinces nobles to be more western Social structure o No middle class: nobles and peasants only o Jews handle the money Son: Frederick the Great; uses the army and money to attack Austria o Seven Years War § The controversial female ruler defends on all sides and the war ends with peace § Prussia closed in on by all except Britain § UK sides with because they hate the French o Europe unchanged; UK has seized North Africa, Caribbean, India, … o Completed UK dominance (also stresses itself greatly) Warfare in the Eighteenth Century Armies still not professional – conscripts, crooks, etc Generals become conservative as technology improves (more accurate weaponry, professional officers) o Small advantages sought – supply lines, forts, etc to prevent death of entire armies (i.e. complete loss) o Only fighting for 4-5mo per year o Small conflicts devolve into a monetary battle – whoever runs out loses however, still has an army to bargain with Battles cost high casualties – deep ranks of muskets, charging cavalry, heavy artillery Western Europe and the Great Colonial Rivalry Biggest profits for France and Britain came from colonies so they fought over it Dutch trade routes challenged and dominated by superior UK Navy The Twighlight of Monarchies? The Question of Enlightened Absolutism (18 th century) Britain and France both decline – Monarchs try to appear “enlightened” to maintain power ( tried to appear progressive ) o Britain – parliament continues to gain the upper hand o France – successors lacked interest and talent Changes in Country and City Life The Agricultural Revolution – huge production increase … Two major developments: o 1) intro of new crops and farming techniques (New crops replenished the soil) o 2) transformation of rural land into large farms Manufacturing Spreads In The Countryside: Cottage Industry o Cottage Industry: entrepreneurs invest in raw materials and sometimes equipment for families to work with o Whole-family operations; appealed b/c it allowed families to stay in rural locations Holy Roman Empire Collapses Collapses into Austria (weak, mixed languages, buffer state); Germany (disjointed – not even called Germans for centuries); Prussia (common heritage) American Colonization Setup over time by various countries
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NotesAll[1] - FULL LECTURE NOTES b y David Underhill for:...

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