Book Notes Chapter 2

Book Notes Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Chemical Bonds Chemical...

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Chapter 2 – Chemical Bonds Chemical bond—link between atoms Ionic bond—complete transfer of one or more electron, after which atoms are pulled together by electrostatic forces Covalent bond—sharing of electrons—usually the sharing of an electron pair by two ions Metallic bond—sharing of a sea of electrons by a large number of cations Valence electrons-electrons in outermost electron shells Ionic solid—assembly of cations and anions stacked together Crystalline solid—solids consisting of atoms, molecules, or ions stacked together in a regular pattern To predict the electron configuration of a monatomic cation, remove outermost electrons in the order np, ns, (n-1)d; for a monatomic anion, add electrons until the next noble-gas configuration has been reached. The transfer of electrons results in the formation of an octet (or duplet) of electrons in the valence shell on each of the atoms: metals achieve an octet (or duplet) by electron loss and nonmetals achieve it by electron gain Formulas of compounds consisting of the monatomic ions of main-group elements can be predicted by assuming that cations have lost all their valence electrons and anions have gained electrons in their valence shells until each ion has an octet of electrons, or a duplet in the case of H, Li, and Be. Typically, only metallic elements have ionization energies that are low enough for the formation of cations to be energetically feasible. The energy required for the formation of ionic bonds is largely supplied by the attraction between oppositely charged ions. Lattice energy—the difference between the ions packed together and in a solid
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course CHEM 6A taught by Professor Pomeroy during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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Book Notes Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Chemical Bonds Chemical...

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