SB_Chem6C_S10_Exam 3 Review-With Questions

SB_Chem6C_S10_Exam 3 Review-With Questions - Chemistry 6C:...

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Chemistry 6C: Exam 3 Review
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Chemistry 6C: Exam 3 Review General reac)vity Bonding among atoms of a given element Allotropism Bonding with non‐metals (ionic/p.covalent/covalent – σ / π bonding?± Bonding with metals (metallic, polar covalent/ionic± Hydrides (ionic, covalent, metallic± Acid‐base behavior of oxides Redox behavior (reducing? oxidizing? common oxida)on states?± Diagonal rela)onships: Li/Mg; B/Al, Interes)ng compounds: diborane, silicate minerals, silicone polymers, oxides and oxoacids of N, P, S, and halogens, interhalogen compounds, xenon fluorides and oxides
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Chemistry 6C: Exam 3 Review 1. Consider how the elements are found in nature (Which are “free”? Which have allotropic forms?) and commercial uses. 2. Determine which of two main-group elements has: the more metallic character; the higher ionization energy; the larger atomic radius; the higher electronegativity; consider also the types of bonding, oxide acid-base properties, and redox behaviors. 3. Contrast the chemical and physical properties of the second period main-group elements (small atomic size and limited number of valence orbitals) with the properties of the heavier elements in the same groups, including the “inert pair effect”. 4. Discuss the basis of the three important diagonal relationships (B/Mg, Be/Al, B/Si).
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Chemistry 6C: Exam 3 Review Groups 1/2 - Alkali metals are very reactive; powerful reducing agents; +1 oxidation state in all compounds - Li shows anomalous behavior: Li 2 O, Li 3 N - Alkaline earth metals are also powerful reducing agents; all (except Be) form ionic compounds with +2 oxidation state; Be bonds are polar covalent (does not form discrete Be 2+ ions) In groups 13-16, note: 1. presence of multiple oxidation states, 2. increasing prominence of lower oxidation state Group 13 - Boron is a semi-metal; being electron deficient makes boron compounds strong Lewis acids - Notable B compounds: B 2 H 6 (diborane); BN, B(OH) 3 or H 3 BO 3 - Notable Al compounds; Al 2 Cl 6 (covalent dimer), Al 2 O 3 is amphoteric
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Group 14 - Non-metals (C); semi-metals (Si, Ge) and metals (Sn, Pb) - Allotropic forms of carbon: diamond ___ -hybridized; graphite: ___ - hybridized; C 60 and nanotubes - Oxidation states of -4 (C and Si only), +4, and +2 (down group) - Silicon: silicates (SiO 4 4- ) ; vs. silicones -(O-Si(R 2 )-O)- Group 15 - Non-metals (N 2 gas; P 4 solid and its allotropes); semi-metals (As, Sb) and metal (Bi) - N exhibits every possible oxidation state for the group: +5 to -3 (with Li and Mg); only +5 and +3 are common for P, As, and Sb. -
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course CHEM 6C taught by Professor Hoeger during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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SB_Chem6C_S10_Exam 3 Review-With Questions - Chemistry 6C:...

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