CH15-2 - cells have integrated F plasmid in chromosome •...

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Chapter 15, Part II Bacterial Gene Transfer Three types: 1) Transformation 2) Conjugation 3) Transduction All involve a donor and recipient
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Transformation Fragments of donor DNA enter the recipient and alter its genotype Natural transformation – recipient cell has enzymatic machinery for DNA import Artificial transformation – damage to recipient cell walls allows donor DNA to enter cells Electroporation – mix donor DNA with recipient bacteria and subject to very brief high-voltage shock
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Transformation Auxotroph (vs. prototroph) a mutant that has a nutritional requirement not shared by the parent Cotransformation two or more genes enter recipient; must be within ~ 20 kb
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Conjugation discovery But natural transformation doesn’t occur in E. coli…
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Conjugation Requires: 1)cell-to-cell contact 2)a conjugative plasmid (e.g. F plasmid)
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The F plasmid and conjugation
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Conjugation
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The F plasmid occasionally integrates into the E. coli chromosome Hfr (high frequency of recombination
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Unformatted text preview: ) cells have integrated F plasmid in chromosome • Results from crossing-over between transposable elements (e.g. IS3, IS2) • Integrated plasmid can initiate DNA transfer by conjugation, but may take some of bacterial chromosome as well Gene transfer in a mating between Hfr donor and F-recipient Conjugation example: Agrobacterium- prokaryote conjugation of eukaryote Conjugation example: Agrobacterium • T-DNA (T ransfer) • Useful tool for biotechnology (can replace genes in T-region with foreign genes) Transduction Different from the other 2 processes accidental gene transfer 2 types: 1) Generalized 2) Specialized Generalized Transduction Lytic cycle (natural viral process) Specialized Transduction Virulent vs. temperate phages Virulent lytic cycle Temperate lytic or lysogenic cycle Lysogenic cycle = DNA integrates into host genome with little or no harm to host Specialized Transduction Gene Transfer Summary...
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