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3._Perception_Attribution_Motivation - 3 Perception...

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3 Perception, Attribution, Personality & Motivation The Basics of Perception & Perception Process What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? Definition : Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Why is this important to the study of OB? 4 Because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself? A. Factors Influencing Perception 5 Factors that shape (and can distort perception):
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Perceiver Target Situation 6 When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. 7 The more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception of the perceiver are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations. 8 Characteristics of the target can also affect what is being perceived. This would include attractiveness, gregariousness, and our tendency to group similar things together. For example, members of a group with clearly distinguishable features or color are often perceived as alike in other, unrelated characteristics as well. 9 The context in which we see objects or events also influences our attention. This could include time, heat, light, or other situational factors.
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Person Perception: Making Judgments about Others A. Attribution Theory 10 Our perceptions of people differ from our perceptions of inanimate objects. We make inferences about the actions of people that we do not make about inanimate objects. Nonliving objects are subject to the laws of nature. People have beliefs, motives, or intentions. 11 Our perception and judgment of a person’s actions are influenced by these assumptions. 12 Attribution theory suggests that when we observe an individual’s behavior, we attempt to determine whether it was internally or externally caused. That determination depends largely on three factors: Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency 13 Clarification of the differences between internal and external causation: 14 Internally caused behaviors are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. 15 Externally caused behavior is seen as resulting from outside causes; that is, the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation. 16 Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations. What we want to know is whether the observed behavior is unusual. If it is, the observer is likely to give the behavior an external attribution. If this action is not unusual, it will probably be judged as internal. 17 Consensus occurs if everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way. If consensus is high, you would be expected to give an external attribution to the employee’s tardiness, whereas if other employees who took the
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