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chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Chapter ATOMS MOLECULES IONS 2.1 The...

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Chapter 2 Chapter 2 ATOMS, MOLECULES & IONS ATOMS, MOLECULES & IONS
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2.1 The early history of chemistry atomos” atomos” Leucippos Leucippos Alchemy Robert Boyle (1627-1691) “ element” PV = k Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), CO 2 , O 2 John Dalton (1766 – 1844), atomic theory.
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Law of Conservation of Mass Law of Conservation of Mass Ma Ma ss is ss is  neither created nor destroyed  neither created nor destroyed . . 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws
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Law of Definite Proportion Law of Definite Proportion Compounds are made up of elements in Compounds are made up of elements in     the  the  same proportion by mass same proportion by mass . .
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Law of Multiple Proportions Law of Multiple Proportions When 2 elements form a series of compounds, the  When 2 elements form a series of compounds, the  ratios of the masses of the second element that  ratios of the masses of the second element that  combine with 1 g of the first element, can  combine with 1 g of the first element, can  always be reduced to small whole numbers always be reduced to small whole numbers
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ELEMENTS : ELEMENTS : An element is a pure substance that  An element is a pure substance that  consists of one type of  consists of one type of  ATOM ATOM C C H H N N O O
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ATOM is the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element
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Symbols of Elements Symbols of Elements Use 1 or 2 letter abbreviations Capitalize the first letter only ! Examples: C carbon Co cobalt N nitrogen Ca calcium F fluorine Br bromine O oxygen Mg magnesium
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Symbols from Latin Names Symbols from Latin Names Element Symbol Latin name Copper Cu cuprum Gold Au aurum Lead Pb plumbum Mercury Hg hydrargyrum Potassium K kalium Silver Ag argentum Sodium Na natrium Tin Sn stannum Iron Fe Ferrous
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Select the correct symbol for each: A. Calcium 1) C 2) Ca 3) CA B. Sulfur 1) S 2) Sl 3) Su C. Iron 1) Ir 2) FE 3) Fe
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Select the correct name for each: A. N 1) neon 2) nitrogen 3) nickel B. P 1) potassium 2) phogiston 3) phosphorus C. Ag 1) silver 2) agean 3) gold
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COMPOUNDS COMPOUNDS SUBSTANCE MADE UP OF 2 OR  SUBSTANCE MADE UP OF 2 OR  MORE ELEMENTS IN MORE ELEMENTS IN     A FIXED PROPORTION A FIXED PROPORTION H H 2 2 O O NaCl NaCl
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