chapter 4

chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water: the common solvent + + H H O - means a partial negative charge + means a partial positive charge - Water has a partial negative end (oxygen) and a partial positive end (Hydrogen) and it is called polar. 4.1 Water: the common solvent Water can dissolve many different substances. A : The hydration of ions when ionic solids dissolve in water. Figure 4.2 on page 128 NaCl (s) Na + ( aq ) + Cl- ( aq ) H 2 O (l) When an ionic solid dissolves in water, the ions become hydrated and are dispersed (move around independently) B : water can dissolve some polar covalent compounds Figure 4.3 on page 129: hydrogen bonding. Like dissolves like (page 490) 4.2 Strong and weak electrolytes Solute : The dissolved (dispersed) substance Solvent : The dispersing medium Solution : a homogenous mixture of two or more substances. Water is the solvent in aqueous solution. Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water Soluble Compounds Electrolytes Strong Electrolytes: strong acids and bases, and soluble ionic salts. (HNO 3 , NaOH, CaCl 2 ) Weak Electrolytes: weak acids and bases. (CH 3 COOH, NH 3 ) Nonelectrolytes (glucose, C 2 H 5 OH) Strong Electrolytes: strong acids/bases and soluble ionic salts. Strong acids and weak acids Strong Acids : Those that ionize (separate into hydrogen ions and stable anions) completely, or very nearly completely, in dilute aqueous solution. HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl- (to completion) Weak Acids : Those that ionize slightly (usually < 10%) in dilute aqueous solution. Acids : A substance that produces hydrogen ions, H + , in aqueous solutions. H + ions are hydrated in aqueous solution, represented as H 3 O + , the hydronium ion. Examples: HNO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HClO 4 , HClO 3 , HCl, HBr, HI Examples: HCN, HF, CH 3 COOH, H 2 SO 3 , H 3 PO 4 CH 3 COOH + H 2 O H 3 O + + CH 3 COO- (reversible) 4.3 The Composition of Solutions Molarity: moles of solute per volume of solution in liters M = molarity = Moles of solute Liters of solution 1.0 M = 1.0 moles of solute per liter 2.5 M = 2.5 mol/liter 1.50 mols NaCl in 450 mL of solution =_______M 3.33 M = Moles of solute Liters of solution #1: 1.56 g gaseous HCl dissolved in water to make 26.8 mL of solution 1.56 g HCl 1 mol HCl 36.46 g HCl 0.0268 L =1.60 M #2: How many grams of NaOH is in 1.50 L solution of 0.192 M NaOH ? = M Moles of solute Liters of solution 11.5 g, see example 4.1 on page 134 M Moles of solute Liters of solution = V = moles/M Concentration of Ions 2.50 M NaCl, 35.0 mL M Na+ and M Cl- Moles Na + and moles Cl- NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl- (aq) H 2 O (l) 0.0875 mol 2.50 M Magnesium chloride, 35.0 mL M Mg2+ and M Cl- Moles Mg 2+ and moles Cl- Concentration of Ions MgCl 2 (s) Mg 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) H 2 O (l) Now try example 4.5 and 4.6 on page 0.0875 mol Mg 2+ 0.175 mol Cl- To prepare solution of Standard solution How to prepare 1.000 L of 0.200 M K 2 Cr 2 O...
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Luikang during the Spring '10 term at SPSU.

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chapter 4 - Chapter 4: Types of Chemical Reactions and...

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