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Unformatted text preview: Gases Gases Chapter 5: 1 Macroscopic properties are due to structures of its constituent molecules and the interactions between them http://www.media.pearson.com.au/schools/cw/au_sch_whalley_sf1_1/int/matter.html 2 Macroscopic behavior of a fixed mass of gas ( moles of gas= n n ) is completely characterized by 3 properties 3 properties V, P and T V, P and T V V = liter = liter P P = atm = atm or pascal or pascal T T = Kelvin = Kelvin 3 5.1 Pressure Pressure: force per unit area SI unit of pressure: Pascal (pa) 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 1 N = 1 kg m/s 2 4 5.1 Pressure Barometer : the device to measure atmospheric pressure. 1 atm = 760 mm of Hg =760 torr = 101,325 Pa = 101.325 kPa = 14.69 psi 5 5.1 Pressure manometer : the device to measure pressure of a gas in a container. 6 Gases Obey Obey Laws !!!! Scientific laws that describe the relationships between 4 important physical properties of Gases: T, P, V & amount (moles) 5.2 The gas law of Boyle, Charles and Avogadro 7 Boyles Law Pressurevolume relationship PV= k P 1/V Inverse relationship 8 Boyles Law Illustrated At Constant Temp. 9 Boyles Law Data 10 PV = k 11 12 13 Mechanics of Breathing PV = k 14 SCUBA Diving S elf C ontained U nderwater B reathing A pparatus Rapid rise causes the bends Nitrogen bubbles out of blood rapidly from pressure decrease Must rise slowly to the surface to avoid the bends. 15 Bicycle pump is an example of Boyles law As the volume of the air trapped in the pump is reduced, its pressure goes up, and air is forced into the tire. 16 Charless Law T and V relationship V T or V/T = b In gas law calculations Kelvin temperature must be used. 17 Balloon filled with helium gas placed in the cold will shrink and when placed back in warmer temperatures expands A football inflated inside and then taken outdoors on a winter day shrinks slightly 18 19 20 Gay Lussacs Law P kelvin T 21 Avogadros Law Equal volumes of gases at the same T and P contain equal numbers of gas particles V n V=kn 22 http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/ hillchem3/chapter5/medialib/0507.html http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/hillch 23 Boyles Law V= k/P Charles law V= b.T Avogadros Law V=a.n equation constant T, n P, n T,P V = k.b.a .nT = V = nRT/P = PV = nRT P 5.3 The Ideal Gas Law 24 Ideal Gas law PV= nRT R= 0.08206 liters atm/ (Kelvin mol) = 8.314 meter 3 Pa/ (Kelvinmol) = 8.314 J/ (Kelvin mol) 25 IDEAL GAS LAW IDEAL GAS LAW PV = nRT P = pressure in atm....
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Luikang during the Spring '10 term at SPSU.
 Spring '10
 LuiKang
 Mole

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