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Unformatted text preview: Gases Gases Chapter 5: 1 • Macroscopic properties are due to structures of its constituent molecules and the interactions between them http://www.media.pearson.com.au/schools/cw/au_sch_whalley_sf1_1/int/matter.html 2 • Macroscopic behavior of a fixed mass of gas ( moles of gas= n n ) is completely characterized by 3 properties 3 properties V, P and T V, P and T • V V = liter = liter • P P = atm = atm or pascal or pascal • T T = Kelvin = Kelvin 3 5.1 Pressure Pressure: force per unit area SI unit of pressure: Pascal (pa) 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 1 N = 1 kg · m/s 2 4 5.1 Pressure Barometer : the device to measure atmospheric pressure. 1 atm = 760 mm of Hg =760 torr = 101,325 Pa = 101.325 kPa = 14.69 psi 5 5.1 Pressure manometer : the device to measure pressure of a gas in a container. 6 Gases Obey Obey Laws !!!! • Scientific laws that describe the relationships between 4 important physical properties of Gases: • T, P, V & amount (moles) 5.2 The gas law of Boyle, Charles and Avogadro 7 Boyle’s Law • Pressurevolume relationship PV= k • P ∝ 1/V • Inverse relationship 8 Boyle’s Law Illustrated At Constant Temp. 9 Boyle’s Law Data 10 PV = k 11 12 13 Mechanics of Breathing PV = k 14 SCUBA Diving • S elf C ontained U nderwater B reathing A pparatus • Rapid rise causes “the bends” – Nitrogen bubbles out of blood rapidly from pressure decrease Must rise slowly to the surface to avoid the “bends”. 15 • Bicycle pump is an example of Boyle’s law • As the volume of the air trapped in the pump is reduced, its pressure goes up, and air is forced into the tire. 16 Charles’s Law • T and V relationship • V ∝ T or V/T = b • In gas law calculations Kelvin temperature must be used. 17 • Balloon filled with helium gas placed in the cold will shrink and when placed back in warmer temperatures expands • A football inflated inside and then taken outdoors on a winter day shrinks slightly 18 19 20 Gay Lussac’s Law • P α kelvin T 21 Avogadro’s Law • Equal volumes of gases at the same T and P contain equal numbers of gas particles • V α n • V=kn 22 http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/ hillchem3/chapter5/medialib/0507.html http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/hillch 23 Boyle’s Law V= k/P Charle’s law V= b.T Avogadro’s Law V=a.n equation constant T, n P, n T,P V = k.b.a .nT = V = nRT/P = PV = nRT P 5.3 The Ideal Gas Law 24 Ideal Gas law • PV= nRT • R= 0.08206 liters · atm/ (Kelvin ·mol) = 8.314 meter 3 ·Pa/ (Kelvin·mol) = 8.314 J/ (Kelvin · mol) 25 IDEAL GAS LAW IDEAL GAS LAW PV = nRT P = pressure in atm....
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 Spring '10
 LuiKang
 Mole, gas particles

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