Psychosocial Perspectives on Peacebuilding (1).pdf - Peace Psychology Book Series Series Editor Daniel J Christie More information about this series at

Psychosocial Perspectives on Peacebuilding (1).pdf - Peace...

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Unformatted text preview: Peace Psychology Book Series Series Editor Daniel J. Christie More information about this series at Herbert Blumberg, Goldsmiths College, United Kingdom Daniel Bar-Tal, Tel Aviv University, Israel Klaus Boehnke, International University Bremen, Germany Ed Cairns, University of Ulster, Northern Ireland Peter Coleman, Columbia University, USA Cheryl de la Rey, University of Cape Town, South Africa Anthony Marsella, University of Hawaii, USA Fathali Moghaddam, Georgetown University, USA Maritza Montero, Central University of Venezuela, Venezuela Cristina Montiel, Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines Noraini Noor, International Islamic University, Malaysia Nora Alarifi Pharaon, Tamkeen: Center for Arab American Empowerment, USA Antonella Sapio, University of Florence, Italy Illana Shapiro, University of Massachusetts, USA Ann Sanson, University of Melbourne, Australia Richard Wagner, Bates College, USA Michael Wessells, Columbia University and Randolph-Macon College, USA Brandon Hamber • Elizabeth Gallagher Editors Psychosocial Perspectives on Peacebuilding 2123 Editors Brandon Hamber INCORE, University of Ulster Derry/Londonderry Northern Ireland Elizabeth Gallagher Institute of Nursing and Health Research, University of Ulster Derry/Londonderry Northern Ireland ISSN 2197-5779 ISSN 2197-5787 (electronic) ISBN 978-3-319-09936-1 ISBN 978-3-319-09937-8 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-09937-8 Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: 2014947974 © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher’s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media ( ) Acknowledgements This book began a number of years ago as an idea in 2007 and then developed into a range of projects and sub-projects, and as a result is the product of many people’s hard work. We would particularly like to express gratitude to the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) for their financial support and willingness to fund a large-scale initiative with many global partners. We are indebted to their vision and backing. We would like to particularly thank Navasharan Singh from the IDRC for her contributions to the project, perseverance and guidance for supporting the project initially called Trauma, Development and Peacebuilding: Towards an integrated psychosocial approach. We also need to acknowledge all the people who took part in Phase One of the project in Delhi, it was their ideas, along with the chapter authors, that led to the final study that is documented in this book-so thank you to Adolf Awuku Bekoe, Carlos Martín Beristain, Angela María Estrada Mesa, Rita Giacaman, Joop de Jong, Carlinda Monteiro, Augustine Nwoye, Pau Pérez-Sales, and Arvinder Singh. We also acknowledge the participation of Grainne Kelly, Gillian Robinson and Kenneth Bush in the Belfast workshop that led to this book, and the support of the INCORE administration team Janet Farren, Shonagh Higgenbotham and Ann Marie Dorrity who helped throughout. We would also like to thank the INCORE Research Associates who contributed to the overall project at different points, specifically Mary Alice Clancy and Claire Magill, whose work and ideas contributed immensely to the project behind this book. We also thank Cathy Brolly and Florian Prommegger who also provided some research assistance in the final stages, as well as Helen McLaughlin for her editorial help. The authors who have written in this volume need a massive thank you. Many of them also took part in the formative Delhi meeting that seeded the idea for this book. We cannot thank all of you enough for your contributions to this volume and partaking in the wide-ranging study behind it that you all participated in with enthusiasm, intellectual fortitude, critical insight, patience to say the least, and good humour. So we are indebted to Inger Agger, Saliha Bava, Glynis Clacherty, Alison Crosby, Sumona DasGupta, Mauricio Gaborit, Victor Igreja, M. Brinton Lykes, R. Srinivasa Murthy, Duduzile Ndlovu, Lorena Núñez, Ingrid Palmary, Gameela Samarasinghe, Jack Saul, Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian, Shobna Sonpar, Stevan Weine, and Michael Wessells. In the end we jointly created something great, so thanks one and all. v vi Acknowledgements Usche Merk from Medico International also needs to be acknowledged for her contributions and also to supporting the dissemination of some of the work from the project. We would also like to thank the editors of the Intervention Journal, Marian Tankink and Peter Ventevogel, who published abridged versions of some of the chapters, and we acknowledge the use of some of the pictures in Chap. 5. In addition to this, the Mellon Foundation requires specific mention as their support for Brandon Hamber as a Mellon Distinguished Visiting Scholar allowed him to collaborate with the South African team who worked on Chap. 6. Dan Christie also needs a mention for his editorial assistance, wisdom and willingness to support our proposal to turn the case studies into a book, as well as Welmoed Spahr and Hana Nagdimov for their support at Springer. We then leave the most important people (sorry everyone) for last but not least. This book, and the project behind it, has been a massive undertaking over a number of years, all those we have thanked so far made it possible but arguably our families paid the price in terms of lost family time and dealing with the stress of the project and final publication. Brandon Hamber would like to thank Helen McLaughlin and James for their affection, love, understanding, encouragement and support (and he could go on and on). Elizabeth Gallagher would particularly like to express gratitude to her husband Danny Harkin and to her children Collette and Kian for their love, support and encouragement during the production of this book. 1 July 2014 Brandon Hamber & Elizabeth Gallagher Contents 1 Exploring how Context Matters in Addressing the Impact of Armed Conflict . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brandon Hamber, Elizabeth Gallagher, Stevan M. Weine, Inger Agger, Saliha Bava, Mauricio Gaborit, R. Srinivasa Murthy and Jack Saul 1 2 Transforming Conflict, Changing Society: Psychosocial Programming in Indian Jammu and Kashmir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shobna Sonpar 33 3 Addressing the Psychosocial Needs of Young Men: The Case of Northern Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elizabeth Gallagher and Brandon Hamber 71 4 Rethinking Psychosocial Programming in Post-war Sri Lanka . . . . . . . 117 Gameela Samarasinghe 5 Creative Methodologies as a Resource for Mayan Women’s Protagonism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 M. Brinton Lykes and Alison Crosby 6 Remembering, Healing, and Telling: Community-Initiated Approaches to Trauma Care in South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Ingrid Palmary, Glynis Clacherty, Lorena Núñez and Duduzile Ndlovu 7 Legacies of War, Healing, Justice and Social Transformation in Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Victor Igreja 8 Death and Dying in My Jerusalem: The Power of Liminality . . . . . . . . 255 Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian vii viii Contents 9 Towards Contextual Psychosocial Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Brandon Hamber, Elizabeth Gallagher, Stevan M. Weine, Sumona DasGupta, Ingrid Palmary and Mike Wessells Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Contributors Inger Agger Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Copenhagen, Denmark Saliha Bava Mercy College, New York, USA Glynis Clacherty African Centre for Migration and Society, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Alison Crosby York University, Toronto, Canada Sumona DasGupta New Delhi, India Mauricio Gaborit Department of Psychology, Universidad Centroamericana José Simeón Cañas (UCA), San Salvador, El Salvador Elizabeth Gallagher Institute of Nursing and Health Research, University of Ulster, Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland Brandon Hamber International Conflict Research Institute (INCORE) University of Ulster, Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland Victor Igreja School of Social Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia M. Brinton Lykes Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA R. Srinivasa Murthy National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India Lorena Núñez Department of Sociology, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Duduzile Ndlovu African Centre for Migration and Society, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Ingrid Palmary African Centre for Migration and Society, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Gameela Samarasinghe University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka ix x Contributors Jack Saul International Trauma Studies Program, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, USA Shobna Sonpar Institute of Social Studies Trust, New Delhi, India Nadera Shalhoub-Kevorkian School of Social Work and Public Welfare, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel Stevan M. Weine College of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, USA Mike Wessells Program on Forced Migration and Health, Columbia University, New York, USA About the Editors Brandon Hamber Ph.D. is Director of the International Conflict Research Institute (INCORE), an associate site of the United Nations University based at the University of Ulster and Professor of Peace and Conflict Studies. He is also an Associate of the Transitional Justice Institute at the university. He was a Mellon Distinguished Visiting Scholar in the School of Human and Community Development and the African Centre for Migration and Society at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg (2010–2013). He trained as a Clinical Psychologist in South Africa and holds a Ph.D. from the University of Ulster. Prior to moving to Northern Ireland, he co-ordinated the Transition and Reconciliation Unit at the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation in Johannesburg. He has published some 40 book chapters and scientific journal articles, including Transforming Societies after Political Violence: Truth, Reconciliation, and Mental Health was published by Springer in 2009, and published in 2011 in Spanish by Ediciones Bellaterra and entitled Transformar las sociedades después de la violencia política. Verdad, reconciliación y salud mental. Elizabeth Gallagher Ph.D. previously worked as a Research Associate at INCORE, an associate site of the United Nations University based at the University of Ulster. She worked on the IDRC Trauma, Development and Peacebuilding Project. She graduated with a B.Sc. (Hons) in Psychology and Organisational Science from the University of Ulster and obtained an M.Sc. in Health Promotion from the same Institution. She has recently obtained a Ph.D. from the School of Psychology also at the University of Ulster. She has previously worked on a cross-national study involving senior academics from Universities in The Netherlands, England, Cyprus, Israel, The Basque Country and Northern Ireland. This study assessed national identity, intergroup attitudes, and the development of enemy images with young children in both non-divided and divided societies. Dr. Gallagher is currently based at the Institute of Nursing and Health Research at the University of Ulster where she is working on a large scale project examining the differences in how residential facilities support people with intellectual disabilities with challenging behaviour and/or mental health problems. xi About the Authors Inger Agger Ph.D. & licensed clinical psychologist is a Senior Expert and NIAS Associate of the Nordic Institute of Asian Studies in Copenhagen. Recently, she concluded a research project in Cambodia in which she explored local Buddhist approaches to healing of violence-related trauma, and also directed a documentary film, “Justice and Healing in Cambodia” (2012, with S. Rordam), which she screened and discussed in 2013 in a number of Southeast Asian countries. Currently, Dr. Agger is continuing her studies of Buddhist psychotherapy in Japan with special focus on “Naikan”, a contemplative approach developed withing the Japanese Pure Land Tradition. Dr. Agger has worked extensively with testimony as acknowledgement and healing of violence-related distress, and her latest publications includes: Agger, I., Igreja, V., Kiehle, R. & Polatin, P. (2012). Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for survivors of torture in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia and the Philippines. Transcultural Psychiatry. Saliha Bava Ph.D. is an Associate Professor of Marriage and Family Therapy at Mercy College, NY; an advisor in the Taos Institute’s Ph.D. program and a faculty in their M.Sc. Relational Leading program. She consults, writes and presents on performative/play-based and dialogic relational processes within organizational, community, family, learning and research systems. She has consulted on disaster preparedness and response to organizations in profit, non-profit and governmental sectors. She received a leadership award from the City of Houston’s Disaster Mental Health Crises Response Team for directing the Mental Health Services at the George R. Brown Katrina Shelter in 2005. As Director of Research, International Trauma Studies Program, affiliated with Columbia University, she researches the use of theater for community resiliency and psychosocial practices with refugees of political violence. She is a board member of the American Family Therapy Academy and the International Certificate in Collaborative Practices. She practices couples therapy in NYC and presents workshops internationally. Glynis Clacherty is a Ph.D. student at the African Centre for Migration and Society at Wits University. She has spent the last twenty years doing research for organisations such as Save the Children, UNHCR, UNICEF, Soul City, PLAN International and REPSSI in southern and eastern Africa. She has a special interest in ethical xiii xiv About the Authors participatory research with vulnerable children. She initiated a support project for unaccompanied migrant children in inner city Johannesburg in 2000 that used an innovative art-based approach to dealing with trauma. Her Ph.D. research is a reflection on this project in the context of alternatives to traditional approaches to trauma for migrant children. Alison Crosby Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in the School of Gender, Sexuality and Women’s Studies and Director of the Centre for Feminist Research at York University in Toronto. Her research and publications use an anti-racist anti-colonial feminist lens to explore survivors’ multifaceted struggles for agency and subjectivity in the aftermath of violence. She is currently completing a book manuscript with Professor M. Brinton Lykes on gender and reparation in Guatemala, based on four years of feminist participatory action research with Mayan women survivors of violence during the armed conflict in Guatemala, funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) and the International Development Research Centre (IDRC). And with Dr. Malathi de Alwis, she is exploring memorialization as a site of contestation in Guatemala and Sri Lanka in a project entitled The Inhabitance of Loss: A transnational feminist project on memorialization, also funded by SSHRC. Sumona DasGupta is a researcher, writer, consultant, and trainer based in New Delhi, India. Trained as a Political Scientist she is currently engaged with theories and practices around critical security studies, peace and conflict, democracy and dialogue and politics in South Asia. Previously she has taught in the Department of Political Science Loreto College, Kolkata, was Assistant Director of Women in Security Conflict Management and Peace (WISCOMP) an initiative of the Foundation for Universal Responsibility of His Holiness The Dalai Lama in New Delhi and Lead Researcher for Society for Participatory research in Asia (PRIA) on a EU project on governance and conflict resolution. She was a 2014 Visiting Fellow with the South Asia programme at the Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Sumona is on the International Advisory Group of INCORE, University of Ulster, and Member of the International Peace Commission, of the Warrington based Jonathan Ball and Tim Parry Foundation for Peace. Mauricio Gaborit Ph.D. holds a doctorate in social psychology from the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) and is presently Chairman of the Department of Psychology of the Universidad Centroamericana José Simeón Cañas (UCA) of El Salvador and Director of its Graduate Programme in Community Psychology. He has published in the areas of gender, social and gang violence and psychosocial intervention in political violence and in disasters. He taught at St. Louis University (St. Louis, MO, USA) and has served as visiting professor at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Georgetown University (where he held the Jesuit Chair) and the Institute for Peace Studies of the University of Tromsø in Norway. His current interest is in researching historical memory in communities that suffered the violence of civil war in El Salvador and the area of undocumented migration of children. About the Authors xv Victor Igreja holds a Ph.D. in medical anthropology. His research focuses on the effects of war violence in Mozambique and Timor Leste. His publications have appeared in numerous academic journals and edited books. He is a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of the Journal of Religion in Africa, member of the Board of the Transitional Justice Book Series (Springer Publications) and Associate research fellow, Centre for Mozambican and International Studies (CEMO, MaputoMozambique). Currently he teaches at the School of Social Science, the University of...
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