chapter 8

chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Bonding: General Concepts 1 An ionic...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8 Bonding: General Concepts 1 An ionic bond forms when an atom loses electron(s) and another atom gained the electron(s). An ionic compound form when a metal reacts with an nonmetal. There is a complete electron transfer. Examples: NaCl, CaO, FeS 8.1 Types of chemical bonds 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oNBzyM6TcK8 The structure of NaCl - wikipedia Bonds are the forces that holding groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond will form if the energy of the aggregate is lower than that of the individual or separated atoms Coulombs law: E (Q 1 Q 2 /r) 8.1 Types of chemical bonds 3 Figure 8.1 a & b (a) The Interaction of Two Hydrogen Atoms (b) Energy Profile as a Function of the Distance Between the Nuclei of the Hydrogen Atoms 4 Bond length: The distance where the energy in the system is minimal The number of covalent bonds an atom can form is determined by the number of electrons that the atom must share to achieve noble gas configuration 5 Covalent Bonds and Lewis structures F F Single covalent bond: bonding electrons Lone pairs H H 6 Covalent Bonding Covalent bonding: A chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms. A polar covalent bond: a covalent bond between two atoms with different electronegativity, so that the electron density is asymmetrically distributed. H H nonpolar H Cl polar + - 7 Figure 8.2 The Effect of an Electric Field on HF Molecules. 8.2 Electronegativity The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself. 8 What is electronegativity? Electronegativity: ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself. 9 Rank the following bonds in order of increasing ionic character N-O Ca-O C-F Br-Br K-F Br-Br, N-O, C-F, Ca-O, K-F 8-32 10 Table 8.1 The Relationship Between Electronegativity and Bond Type Sample exercise 8.1 on page 335 11 Figure 8.13 The Relationship Between the Ionic Character of a Covalent Bond and the Electronegativity Difference of the Bounded Atoms calculated dipole moment of X + Y- Percent ionic character = measured dipole moment x-y 100%* 12 Indicate bond polarity in the following bonds CO HCl SeS 13 8.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moment H Cl polar + - A molecule such as HCl has a center of positive charge and a center of a negative charge is said to be dipolar , or to have a dipole moment . Any diatomic molecule that has a polar bond is dipolar. 14 Figure 8.5 a-c The Charge Distribution in the Water Molecule Molecule have three or more atoms. Some polar molecules: 15 Figure 8.6 a-c The Structure and Charge Distribution of the Ammonia Molecule 16 Figure 8.7 a-c The Carbon Dioxide Molecule Some molecules have polar bonds but do not have a dipole moment....
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Luikang during the Spring '10 term at SPSU.

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chapter 8 - Chapter 8 Bonding: General Concepts 1 An ionic...

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