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Resources - Started October 27th 2011 Announcements...

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Unformatted text preview: Started October 27th, 2011 Announcements Geospatial literacy quiz available 4.30 pm Tues Oct 25 - 8.00 am Mon Oct 31 1 attempt, 5760min, 20 questions You MUST complete this quiz (or zero on Lab #5) Preparation: read Chapter 8 of the handbook for the EES student (on Avenue) Complete Geospatial Literacy pre-lab modules Week of Oct. 31 - Labs will be held in the Lloyd Reeds Map Collection (Mills Library, first floor). Arrive early! New Schedule: Oct 27 - Mineral Resources Oct 28 - Intro to Topo Maps Nov 1 - Frozen World: Glaciers Nov 3 - Careers talk Nov 4 - Video- Queens of Diamonds Envir Sc 1G03 Earth & the Environment Rich Resources from the Rocks Outline Introduction Energy Resources - oil, gas, coal Metals Non-metallic resources Introduction: What are resources? Valuable materials of geologic origin that can be extracted from the earth U.S.A: mines 18,000 kg/person/year ! Canada extracts 190,000 tonnes coal 270 million litres crude oil Per day! 300 billion litres natural gas 17,000 tonnes uranium What are reserves? - Discovered deposits that can be extracted economically and legally at the present time estimates change with time new discoveries changing technologies Energy Resources - oil, gas, coal How do oil and gas form? Organic material accumulates in fine-grained * shale rocks are marine sediments - Sediments are buried and heated (organic matter converts to petroleum or natural gas) - Oil and gas migrate from source rocks into reservoir rocks (coarse grained, permeable) good SOURCE rocks (fine grained) * sandstone is a good RESERVOIR rock (coarsegrained) some as dolostone (vugs) Which rocks make good source rocks? Which make good reservoirs? Good reservoir rocks - porous and permeable - Coarse-grained (sandstones) - Vuggy (dolomites) - Oil and gas are less dense than water --migrate upwards What stops oil and gas escaping at the surface? Oil and gas traps: - Prevent oil and gas escaping with an impermeable 'cap' - Dierent types: Structural Traps in alberta Moose Mtn. Alberta - Geological structures trap oil and gas (ex: anticlines & faults) Fig. 12.5 Stratigraphic Traps - Result from sedimentation patterns -(ex; sandstone lenses, pinchouts, unconformities) Fig. 12.5 Oil pools - underground accumulations of oil Oil fields - regions underlain by one or more oil pools Canadian oil fields: Western Sedimentary Basin (Alberta) Beaufort Sea/Arctic Hibernia (east coast) Erie basin Fig. 12.11 - Oil trapped in sandstone (as solid asphalt) Mined rather than drilled Athabasca Oil Sands, northern Alberta production new technology for extraction increased reserves to 180 billion barrels Canada now has second highest oil reserves in the world (after Saudi Arabia!) Oil sands Oil & Gas: Environmental issues - Reclamation (exploration, drilling) - Pipelines - Air & Water pollution COAL What is coal made of? - Compacted plant materal - sedimentary rock - lignite (brown coal), bitmunious coal - metamorphic rock - anthracite lignite --> youngest anthracite --> most productive (nrg release) Coal occurs in beds up to 30 m thick beds close to the surface are strip mined Where do we find coal in Canada? Fig.12.16 - BC, Alberta, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia Environmental issues: - air pollutants (SO2, NOx), land reclamation, tailings, waste water tailings = waste rock Metals - Extracted from ores -- naturally occurring material that can be profitably mined - hematite -- iron ore, 70% iron gold veins stuck in quartz gold Ores are associated with igneous rocks - CRYSTAL SETTLING -minerals crystallize in cooling magma (ex; chromite ore) Fig. 12.19 Hydrothermal fluids - metals concentrated in hot fluids - move through fractures in rock - deposit minerals as VEINS - metals often associated with quartz Ores also form by contact metamorphism ex; copper, lead, zinc Fig. 12.21 Open pit mining - Copper astronauts can see easily Salt Lake City, Utah Bingham Canyon Copper Mine, Salt Lake City, Utah Ores also formed by surface processes - chemical precipitation in layers on sea floor ex; banded iron ores Placer deposits - concentrated by water or ice ex; gold, diamonds, platinum Mineral producers in N. America Fig. 12.25 Environmental issues: - tailings, subsidence - acid mine drainage (sulphide ore minerals + water = sulphuric acid) Non-metallic resources What kinds of resources? - Aggregates (sand and gravel) - beach, glacial, fluvial deposits, crushed bedrock - Fertilizers (- phosphate - phosphorite, potassium evaporites) - Rock salt -- hailte, evaporites - Gypsum - evaporites - Sulphur -- salt domes - Asbestos - fibrous minerals Stopped October 27th, 2011 Things you have to do! Read Chapter 12 Answer this question: What are gas hydrates? ...
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