Sediments Movement - Started October 20th...

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Unformatted text preview: Started October 20th, 2011 !""#$"%&'&"()* •  "+*,-.*#/01*2+345*6785*911:* •  ;<)*=38>*[email protected]@1*A48B*#06*CD56*E4+F*GHIJ-F*[email protected]*(315M-NB* #06*CO67*-6*PHIJ-FQ**(7141*[email protected]@*.1*CJ*R315L+K5B*D*-S1FT6B* -KM*OUVJF8K*6+*[email protected]*671*-S1FT6* •  %7-KW1*8K*671*,106341*)[email protected]* –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  #06*DP*X*Y1-67148KW* #06*CJ*Z*[8?145*+E*)-KMH*)1M8F1K6*'+?1F1K6* #06*CD*Z*(-:1*3T*F8M614F* #06*CO*Z*[8?145*-KM*[email protected]++M5* #06*CU*Z*'[email protected]*[15+34015* #06*CP*Z*<K64+*6+*(+T+*'-T5* "+?*D*Z*A4+>1K*[email protected]*;@-08145* "+?*I*Z*%-41145*[email protected]:* "+?*\*Z*]8M1+Z*=311K5*+E*^8-F+KM5* &K?84*)0*D;JI* &-467*_*671*&K?84+KF1K6* [8?145*+E*5-KMH*!"#$%"&'()*+"%"&'( !"#$%#&'%(')*+',$(-% )1M8F1K6*W4-8K*58>1* )1M8F1K6*F+?1F1K6* `1ME+4F5*-KM*51M8F1K6-4N*5643063415* [email protected]+9*&R3-L+K5* [email protected][email protected]*[email protected]*Z*[email protected]* ;4-8K*58>1* •  $51*56-KM-4M8>1M*[email protected]** –  ** Wentworth Scale –  ** clay (very fine-grained) –  **boulders (coarse-grained) –  )11*([email protected]*GQD*8K*61b6* Fig. 9.1 Why is it important to classify sediment by grain size? ./0%)/'(%(')*+',$%+/1'-% Transported by water, wind or ice •  ** as suspended load, bedload or dissolved load •  `[email protected]+-M* continuous or intermittent contact with the bed •  W4-8K5*F+?1*8K*** rolling •  *! or jumping (saltation) •  0+-451*W4-8K1M*51M8F1K6* )35T1KM1M*@+-M* fluid •  51M8F1K6*0-4481M*8K*** without coming into contact with the bed •  **fine-grained sediment - silt and clay •  M1T+5861M*3KM14***low energy conditions `1ME+4F5*-KM*51M8F1K6-4N*5643063415* topographic features on the bed •  `1ME+4F5*X*** develop as current velocities change •  ^8c141K6*.1ME+4F5*** current this way---> ,-*.(+"-*/$'0((((((1"#2*3%( ?14N*@+9 *** plane bed @+9 * * *** these show the shape of bed ripples F+M14-61 * *** symmetrical larger ripples dunes plane 78W7 * *************** bed gets flat again b/c speed shears of any ripples/formations Type of bedform also depends on grain size (flat bed) Box 9.2 in text (p. 238) just need to know relationship between speed of current and grain size )1M8F1K6-4N*5643063415* preserved as sedimentary •  `1ME+4F5*-41*** –  **flat bed structures horizontal lamination –  ** ripples ripple cross-lamination –  ** dunes cross-bedding !"*2"%0#3%)*)%$"'%24&&',$%5/0-% understand how dunes forms, an how you can use them to determine paleo-wind direction D unes - Show paleo-direction of current or wind ^3K15* **know Fig. 9.30** Figure 9.30 •  )7+9*[email protected]+ZM8410L+K*+E*03441K6*+4*98KM* know the wind direction of all the planes Steeply dipping ripple foresets dip in direction of current or wind movement steeply dipping ripple foresets dip in direction of current or wind movement [[email protected]* •  (9+*6NT15* –  **Asymmetrical •  formed by undirectional currents (in rivers, sand dunes) ** Fig. 9.2 •  **Symmetrical ripples - form below waves (oscillatory currents) Fig. 9.30 [email protected]+9*&R3-L+K5* * not in textbook !'3"4%(5$6/7438"( Q=VxA Y7141* *=*d*M8507-4W1*eFI5ZDf* *]*d*[email protected]+086N*eF5ZDf* *!*d*[email protected]*-41-*eFCf* *on final 9"0&*-#(:;%<"3(=9">( Determines when laminar flow conditions change to turbulent flow conditions 500 [1*g********@-F8K-4*h+9* 2000 [1*i********[email protected]*h+9* with the given the equation/variable is the river laminar or turbulent if in the middle, need more info Y7-6*85*@-F8K-4*h+9j* - flow that follows straight or gently curving stream flows l ines no mixing <[email protected]*E480L+K*85*671***dominant resisting force <K61K586N*+E*671*E480L+K*85*[email protected]*6+*671*h+9*[email protected]+086N* Y7-6*85*[email protected]*h+9j* <K041-51*671**flow velocity flow no longer occurs in parallel layers [email protected]+086N*85*** highly variable [15856-K01*M1T1KM5*3T+KH* * *** channel configuration [15856-K01*85*[email protected]*6+*671*5R3-41*+E*671*h+9*[email protected]+086N* 2+9*6+*[email protected]@-61*[1j * *[1*d***VRρ/μ Y7141H* *[1*d*[[email protected]*K3F.14* *]*d*F1-K*[email protected]+086N*** (m/s) *[*d*[email protected]*4-M835*** *****d*!ka* everybody screws up the P * * *** = Cross-sectional area (m^2) A P = wetted perimeter (m) *l*d*M1K586N*+E*9-614*** (1000 kg/m^3) *m*d*[email protected]@-4*?850+586N*+E*9-614**(1) 2m 3m P = 7m (do not include the length where the water comes i nto contact with air) %[email protected]@-61*[[email protected]*K3F.145*E+4*671*[email protected]@+98KW*69+* 501K-48+5Q**<M1KLEN*8E*671*h+9*85*[email protected]*+4*@-F8K-4Q* DQ  5641-F*[email protected]+086N*JQG*F5ZD* *5641-F*98M67*DQD*F* *5641-F*M1T67*JQO*F* CQ  5641-F*[email protected]+086N*VQC*F5ZD* *5641-F*98M67*G*F* *5641-F*M1T67*CQ\*F* Started October 21st, 2011 Paleoenvironmental analysis •  !"#$%6*,)%/7%8#9'/',1*&/,+',$#9%*,7/&+#:/,% 2#,%0'%;'$%7&/+%(')*+',$%;&#*,%(*<'-% Energy levels in depositional environment ** - coarse-grained sediments need high energy flows Distance of transport - coarse-grained deposits form close to source area - finer-grained sediments farther travelled •  Y7807*85*[email protected]+5156*6+*671*5+3401* -41-j* Figure 9.4 * A8W341*GQC* •  ;4-8K*58>1*-KM*5643063415*0-K* [email protected]+*8KM80-61** terrestrial, marine or lacustrine –  ** settings •  ** -Mudstones, shales often deep marine •  ([email protected]*M1T+5865*+n1K*** coarse-grained (ex. fluvial sands and gravels) May be associated with features that indicate subaerial exposure (ex. mudcracks, fossil footprints) Fig. 9.4 %@8F-61* •  Glacial deposits, eolian deposits (deserts) ** )1M8F1K65*-KM*;1+F-L05* •  Geomatics ** –  ** Spatial analysis of digital data used –  ** to analyze and visualize many types of geological data –  *1QWQ*[email protected]*E+4F5B*+41*.+M815* )1M8F1K65*-KM*;[email protected]+WN* Cesarea Harbour, Israel Built around 21BCE Largest and most technologically advanced harbour in Roman world Foundation of large concrete blocks B athymetry - water depth ./0%$/%*)',:73%#&:=2*#9%($&42$4&'(-% •  '-48K1*** magnetic survey •  '1-53415*F-WK1L0* T4+T14L15*+E* 51M8F1K65* 'anomalies' •  %-K*8M1KLEN*** –  -41-5*+E*78W7*+4*@+9*** magnetic responses Magnetic map ./0%$/%*)',:73%#&:=2*#9%($&42$4&'(-% •  %+K04161*351M*E+4*** foundations was magnetiterich •  A+3KM-L+K5*57+9*-5* 'highs' F-WK1L0*** (hot colours) •  [[email protected]*57-T15* )+F1*+MM*E1-63415o* •  %+K6-8K*T+S14N*E4-WF1K65*-KM*[email protected]@1M* 4+0:5* •  `[email protected]@-56*F+3KM5* %+K6-F8K-61M*2-4.+34* BOX 9.4 %+K6-F8K-61M*2-4.+34* (+*^+* •  %+F1*6+*[email protected]*+K*A48M-N*E+4*1b-F*6-:1Z3T* •  ,-.5*K1b6*911:* ...
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