13_from_hominin_to_homo - How Humans Evolved Chapter 13...

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How Humans Evolved Chapter 13: From Hominin to Homo W. W. Norton & Company © 2009 1
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Climate box3 The Pleistocene epoch started 1.8 mya and involved cooling . 2
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Figure 13-1 3
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Homo ergaster Origins box3 H . ergaster lived from around 1.8 to 0.6 mya in Africa. box3 May have coexisted with H. habilis in Kenya. 4
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Homo ergaster Morphology box3 Ancestral features include narrowing of braincase behind the eyes, receding forehead, no chin. box3 Derived features include shorter nose, less prognathic face, taller skull, smaller jaws and molars, occipital torus, large browridges; many of these traits are probably related to diet. 5
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Figure 13-2 6
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Homo ergaster Morphology box3 Anatomical suite of characteristics indicates H . ergaster was fully adapted for terrestrial life, without the adaptations for arboreal life seen in earlier hominins. box3 Less sexual dimorphism than in other hominins. 7
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Figure 13-3 8
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Figure 13-4 9
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Homo ergaster Morphology box3 No evidence that there was spoken language. box3 More rapid juvenile development than humans, but slower than earlier hominins. 10
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Figure 13-5 11
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Figure 13-6 12
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Homo ergaster Tools and subsistence box3 Between 1.6 and 1.4 mya, H . ergaster improved on Oldowan tools and added the stone biface, a Mode 2 technological innovation that was part of the Acheulean industry (standardised specifications, consistent for almost 1 my) . box3 Axes could have been used to butcher animals, to dig up tubers or water, to strip bark from trees, as projectiles to hurl at animals or people, or to generate flake tools. 13
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Figure 13-8 14
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Homo ergaster Tools and subsistence box3 Evidence that H . ergaster ate meat includes the abnormality of the bones of a H. ergaster woman, the ubiquity of hand axes, cut marks in animal bones from stone tools, the dental
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