10_from_tree_shrew_to_ape

10_from_tree_shrew_to_ape - How Humans Evolved Chapter 10:...

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Unformatted text preview: How Humans Evolved Chapter 10: From Tree Shrew to Ape W. W. Norton & Company 2009 1 Textbook Caveats s primitive s population 2 Overview s To understand human evolution completely, one must consider each step in the lengthy process by which a population comprising small, solitary, shrewlike insectivores scurrying through leaf litter in a dark Cretaceous forest descended a lineage that led ultimately to organisms like us. 3 Overview s To understand how modern humans evolved, one must be familiar with the geological, climatic, and biological conditions under which the descent with modification occurred. 4 First True Mammals b At the end of the Triassic period, therapsids, which were reptiles with mammalian traits, mostly disappeared. b One lineage of therapsids evolved and diversified, becoming mammals. b The Cenozoic era saw spectacular radiation of all the mammals, following extinction of the dinosaurs. 5 Figure 10-1 6 Figure 10-3 7 Geology and Climate b The earths continents have moved significantly in the past 200 million years, from a large mass called Pangaea to the seven continents we recognize today. b Continental drift affects evolution by putting up barriers that isolate species and by effecting climate change. 8 Figure 10-4 9 10 Climatic Change s The climate has changed substantially during the last 65 million years first becoming warmer and less variable, then cooling, and finally fluctuating in temperature. 11 Figure 10-5 12 Geology and Climate b The last 20 million years of climate change have dramatically altered the course of human evolution. 13 Paleontology s Much knowledge about the history of life derives from studying fossils, mineralised tissues from dead organisms. 14 Dating Fossils Radiometric methods s KAr ( e . g ., volcanic rock; 500000 ya) s C-14 ( e . g ., cells, tissues; 40000 ya) s Thermoluminescence ( e . g ., objects; 40000-500000 ya) s Electron-spin-resonance ( e . g ., teeth; 40000-500000 ya) 15 Paleontology s These techniques are supplemented by relative dating techniques ......
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This note was uploaded on 11/28/2011 for the course SCIENCE BIO 1M03 taught by Professor Stone during the Fall '11 term at McMaster University.

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10_from_tree_shrew_to_ape - How Humans Evolved Chapter 10:...

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