CSC320 chapter2 - UNIX/Linux history and overview Updated...

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UNIX/Linux history and overview 1 Updated by: Dr. Safwan Qasem – Spring 2010 Original version created by: Dr. Mohamed El Bachir Menai
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History of UNIX Versions 2
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History of UNIX Versions
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History of UNIX Versions
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History of UNIX Versions, cont. 1. MULTICS 1964 GE mainframe GE-645 2. UNICS 1971 DEC minicomputer PDP-7 Ken Thompson, one of the researchers involved in developing MULTICS (MULTiplexed Information and Computing Service) OS, implemented a stripped down MULTICS on a discarded PDP-7. He named the OS UNICS (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service). 3. PDP-11 UNIX [Thomson + Ritchie] 1974 DEC Minicomputer PDP-11 4. Portable UNIX (UNIX Version 6) 1977 Interdata 7/32 5. Berkeley UNIX 1977 PDP – 11(2BSD) and VAX Machine (3BSD…) 6. Standard UNIX 1984 POSIX - Portable Operating System Interface for UNIX 7. MINIX (Tanenbaum) 1987 x86 Intel processors (PCs) and workstations 8. Linux (Linus Torvalds) 1991 5
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GE-645 the installation saga of the GE645 system installation in Paris in 1972
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PDP machines PDP-7 machine #115 - Oslo University 1966 PDP-11/70 Dennis Ritchie and Kenneth Thompson, creators of the UNIX operating system, at a PDP-11. (1970)
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The Linux System: Design Principles Linux is a multiuser , multitasking system with a full set of UNIX-compatible tools. Its file system adheres to traditional UNIX semantics, and it fully implements the standard UNIX networking model. Main design goals are speed, efficiency, flexibility and standardization. Linux is designed to be compliant with the relevant POSIX(*) documents; some Linux distributions have achieved official POSIX certification(Unifix Linux 2.0, Lasermoon's Linux-FT). The Linux programming interface adheres to the SVR4 UNIX semantics, rather than to BSD behavior. (*) POSIX = Portable Operating System Interface [for Unix] 8
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The layers of a UNIX system 9
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Components of a UNIX System Like most UNIX implementations, Linux is composed of three main bodies of code: Standard Utilities Programs Standard Library Kernel Standard Utilities Programs perform individual specialized management tasks. Shell Commands for the management of files and directories Filters Compilers Editors Commands for the administration of the system 10
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The shell of a UNIX System The UNIX systems have a Graphical User Interface (Linux uses KDE , GNOME …), but the programmers prefer to type the commands. Shell: the user process which executes programs (command interpreter) User types command Shell reads command (read from input) and translates it to the operating system. Can run
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CSC320 chapter2 - UNIX/Linux history and overview Updated...

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