Lecture 21 fMRI BOLD and Network Dynamics Dr. M_P

Lecture 21 fMRI BOLD and Network Dynamics Dr. M_P - An...

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An Introduction to MRI and fMRI (BOLD: Blood Oxygen-Level Dependent Response)
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1946 - Felix Bloch and Edward Purcell discovered MR phenomenon independently 1950 to 1970 - NMR being developed 1965 - first construction of an image by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance by Prof. Paul Lauterbur at the University at Stony Brook 1971 - Raymond Damadian develops the first MRI for medical use (FONAR Corporation, Melville, NY) 1985 on – MRI widely used in large medical centers around the world Magnetic Resonance Imaging History
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Invention of MRI The Stony Brook Department of Chemistry celebrates the commemoration of the first construction of an image by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance by Prof. Paul Lauterbur at the University at Stony Brook a quarter century ago (1965). The instrument on which Lauterbur performed this critical experiment was a Varian A-60 NMR spectrometer. That very same instrument is in a permanent display in the lobby of the Graduate Chemistry building. The ability to perform non-invasive imaging of the interior of living organisms using nuclear magnetic resonance is one of the most important medical discoveries of the twentieth century. Prof. Lauterbur left Stony Brook in 1985 to become the director of the Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Laboratory at the University of Illinois. The commemoration/dedication ceremony took place on Friday, April 26, 1996.
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Magnets Magnets Bore Bore - a horizontal tube running through the magnet from front to back Table Table : the patient, lying on his or her back, slides into the bore on a special table. Whether or not the patient goes in head first or feet first, as well as how far in the magnet they will go, is determined by the type of exam to be performed
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MRI – Basic Principles The human body is made up of atoms The nucleus of an atom spins, or precesses, on an axis The nucleus of an atom can be considered as a top spinning somewhere off its vertical axis Hydrogen atom has a single proton and a large magnetic moment When placed in a magnetic field, the hydrogen atom has a strong tendency to line up with the direction of the magnetic field
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MRI – Basic Principles The MRI machine applies an RF (radio frequency) pulse that is specific only to hydrogen The system directs the pulse toward the area of the body to be examined The pulse causes the protons in that area to absorb the energy required to make them spin, or precess, in a different direction (according to the tissue it is in) When the RF pulse is turned off, the hydrogen protons begin to slowly (relatively speaking) return
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