Lecture2

Lecture2 - ECE 124A VLSI Principles Lecture 2 Prof. Kaustav...

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Kaustav Banerjee Lecture 2, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles ECE 124A VLSI Principles Lecture 2 Prof. Kaustav Banerjee Electrical and Computer Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara E-mail: kaustav@ece.ucsb.edu
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Kaustav Banerjee Lecture 2, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles 2 History of Computing…. .The first computer The Babbage Difference Engine (1832) 25,000 parts cost: ? 7,470 A mechanical digital calculator… Mechanical computing devices Used decimal number system Could perform basic arithmetic operations Even store and execute Problem: Too complex and expensive! Charles Babbage (1791-1871) London Science Museum
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Kaustav Banerjee Lecture 2, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles 3 Further Reading…. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Difference_engine How Computers Do Math (ISBN: 0471732788) Wiley , Clive Maxfield and Alvin Brown.
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Kaustav Banerjee Lecture 2, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles 4 ENIAC - The first electronic computer (1946) Vacuum tube based computer… For Military applications… 80 ft long, 8.5 ft high, several ft wide… With ~18,000 vacuum tubes! Problem: Reliability issues and excessive power consumption!
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Kaustav Banerjee Lecture 2, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles 5 The Transistor Revolution… First transistor Bell Labs, 1947 (Ge point contact- Bipolar transistor ) Bardeen and Brattian -Nobel Laureates BJT (1948) Schockley Nobel Laureate Transistor Size (1/8” OD X 3/8”) General Electric types G11 and G11A commercial point contact transistors http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/physics/integrated_circuit/history/
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Kaustav Banerjee Lecture 2, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles 6 The First Integrated Circuits Bipolar logic Early 1960’s (TTL, ECL) TTLs offered higher integration density—composed largest fraction of semiconductor market until the 1980s ECL 3-input Gate Motorola 1966 Jack Kilby, Texas Instruments (1958), the monolithic integrated circuit, or microchip (patent #3,138,743), Nobel Prize in 2000
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Kaustav Banerjee Lecture 2, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles 7 Integrated Circuits (Early) History Invention of BJT ( 1948 ) First silicon transistor ( 1954 ) MOS transistor ( 1960 ) MOS integrated circuit ( 1962 ) DRAM cell ( 1968 ) Intel formed ( 1968 ) ( Intel : short form of int egrated el ectronics) AMD formed ( 1969 ) Microprocessor invented ( 1971 ) 32-bit microprocessors ( 1980 )
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Lecture 2, ECE 124A, VLSI Principles 8 BJT vs FETs A Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) is a 3 terminal device Uses the injection of minority carriers (under a forward bias) A BJT is a “bipolar” device (both electrons are holes are involved in its operation) It is an asymmetric device….why? A Field Effect Transistor (FET) is also a 3 terminal device (plus a substrate terminal) A FET is a “unipolar” device (majority carrier only) It is based on controlling the depletion width of a--- junction (JFET) or a Schottky Barrier (MESFET) through a control (gate) voltage Both are based on basic properties of pn junctions
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Lecture2 - ECE 124A VLSI Principles Lecture 2 Prof. Kaustav...

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