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Long - • Availability • High end Caucasians and native...

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Long-term effects Delirium tremens (DT’s) o Hardcore withdrawal – full body tremors, nausea, vomiting, transient hallucinations o Can last 2-3 days o Occurs in about 10% who have been dependent for a long time Malnutrition – “drinking meals” they drink so much they don’t eat frequently o Also can also impair absorption of vitamins such as thiamine Organ damage o Liver – cirrhosis o How long and how intense the binges are determine severity Fetal Alcohol Syndrome o Woman drinks during pregnancy o FAS refers to cognitive deficits in the child o Statistics Prevalence – most people are light drinkers or abstainers Lifetime dependence – 15% Sex ratio – more men but women are catching up Course – abuse, course is variable Some ppl with abuse are on their way to dependence o Dependence tends to be progressive, stuck in the thick of it Others stay within abuse Others go back to light drinking Early drinking (11-14) – predicts alcohol disorder Racial differences Cultural norms
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Unformatted text preview: • Availability • High end: Caucasians and native Americans • Low end: African Americans and Asian Americans • Causal theories of substance-related disorders o Biolgoical Genetics • Genetic risk is for substance abuse/dependence in general • Twin studies suggest there is a genetic component o MZ (monozygotic)– 55% o DZ 28% • Use – more environment, whether you get hooked or not may have to do with biology • What is inherited? o How you experience a drug You drink alcohol and experience an aversive, unpleasant effect you won’t drink as much If alcohol has little effect Ex: Asians, women, sons of alcoholics • Asians – more likely to have a gene that leads to flushing – red face, feels like burning (aversive) somewhat protective • Women – feel effects sooner, may be why they drink less, also protective • Sons of alcoholics – appreciate the highs of alcohol more and are less sensitive by the lows...
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Long - • Availability • High end Caucasians and native...

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