Planning - Central themes • Nature/Nurture • Influence...

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o Planning Contributes to successful problem-solving Children begin to form simple plans by their first birthday As children grow they make a greater variety of plans, which helps them solve a broader range of problems o Strategies – conscious cognitive or behavioral activities used to enhance mental performance Counting Count all strategy Min strategy o Automatization Process of transferring conscious, controlled behaviors into unconscious and automatics ones Ex: driving o Generalization Application of a strategy learned while solving a problem in one situation to a similar problem in a new situation Evaluation of the computer as a model o Computer is more accurate o Computer can work with a large amount of data quickly o Humans are more efficient – can make inferences quickly with incomplete data o Sociocultural theories – cognitive development occurs in an interpersonal context. Guided participation, in which knowledgeable individuals guide child learning, is an important sociocultural process
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Unformatted text preview: Central themes • Nature/Nurture • Influence of sociocultural context • How change occurs Piaget – development leads learning • Once children pass through the stages, his theory is no longer necessary Vygotsky – learning leads to development • This is seen as an ongoing process well into early adulthood • Children are social beings shaped by their cultural contexts • Products of their culture • Learners and teachers • Cognitive change originates in social interaction How does change occur? • Social scaffolding o More competent people provide temporary frameworks that lead children to higher-order thinking • Social referencing o Children look to social partners for guidance about how to respond to unfamiliar events Zone of proximal development • Range between what the children can do by themselves and what they can do with optimal social support • Actual vs. potential...
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