Biology

Biology - Introduction to General Introduction to General...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to General Introduction to General Psychology Psychology Glia I. Cells of the Brain Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells Microglia Radial glia Neurons I. Cells of the Brain Neurons Dendrites I. Cells of the Brain Dendritic spines Neurons Soma I. Cells of the Brain Neurons Axon Myelin sheath Nodes of Ranvier I. Cells of the Brain Neurons Terminal buttons I. Cells of the Brain Action potential Neurotransmitters (Excitatory & Inhibitory) postsynaptic potentials I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Action potential resting (membrane) potential = -70 mV (voltage inside:voltage outside) I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Action potential resting (membrane) potential = -70 mV (voltage inside:voltage outside) brief reversal of membrane potential = e.g., +50 mV I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Myelinated axons action potentials only occur at the Nodes of Ranvier saltatory conduction less # of action potentials = signal travels faster down the neuron I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Special properties of the action potential all or none Threshold of excitation absolute refractory period relative refractory period Neurotransmitter release vesicles full of neurotransmitters exocytosis diffusion across fluid-filled synapse I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Terminal button of Neuron A Dendrite of Neuron B I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Ntm. binding with receptors on postsynaptic membrane = opening ion channels = EPSP or IPSP (if membrane is already depolarized) neutralization of EPSP and produces EPSP e.g., structural changes in learning (Excitatory or Inhibitory) Postsynaptic potentials Cable properties I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Terminal button of Neuron A Dendrite of Neuron B Action potential Strength does not degrade over time & distance tad bit slower I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals (Excitatory or Inhibitory) postsynaptic potential Strength degrades over time & distance quicker than Action Potential I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals All EPSPs & IPSPs are integrated EPSPs > IPSPs = possibly action potential IPSPs > EPSPs = action potential unlikely Action potential down axon I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Neurotransmitter binds with postsynaptic receptors producing EPSPs & IPSPs I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Neurotransmitters disengage some are broken down by an enzyme others are taken back into the presynaptic neuron I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals EPSPs & IPSPs are integrated and if EPSPs > IPSPs, then...
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Biology - Introduction to General Introduction to General...

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