Biology

Biology - Introduction to General Introduction to General...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to General Introduction to General Psychology Psychology • Glia I. Cells of the Brain Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells Microglia Radial glia • Neurons I. Cells of the Brain • Neurons – Dendrites I. Cells of the Brain Dendritic spines • Neurons – Soma I. Cells of the Brain • Neurons – Axon • Myelin sheath • Nodes of Ranvier I. Cells of the Brain • Neurons – Terminal buttons I. Cells of the Brain • Action potential • Neurotransmitters • (Excitatory & Inhibitory) postsynaptic potentials I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals • Action potential – resting (membrane) potential = -70 mV (voltage inside:voltage outside) I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals • Action potential – resting (membrane) potential = -70 mV (voltage inside:voltage outside) – brief reversal of membrane potential = e.g., +50 mV I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals • Myelinated axons • action potentials only occur at the Nodes of Ranvier • saltatory conduction • less # of action potentials = signal travels faster down the neuron I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals • Special properties of the action potential • “all or none” • Threshold of excitation • absolute refractory period • relative refractory period • Neurotransmitter release – vesicles full of neurotransmitters – exocytosis – diffusion across fluid-filled synapse I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Terminal button of Neuron A Dendrite of Neuron B I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals • Ntm. binding with receptors on postsynaptic membrane = opening ion channels = EPSP or IPSP (if membrane is already depolarized) neutralization of EPSP and produces EPSP e.g., structural changes in learning • (Excitatory or Inhibitory) Postsynaptic potentials – Cable properties I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals Terminal button of Neuron A Dendrite of Neuron B Action potential • Strength does not degrade over time & distance • tad bit slower I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals (Excitatory or Inhibitory) postsynaptic potential • Strength degrades over time & distance • quicker than Action Potential I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals • All EPSPs & IPSPs are integrated • EPSPs > IPSPs = possibly action potential • IPSPs > EPSPs = action potential unlikely • Action potential down axon I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals • Neurotransmitter diffuses across synapse I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals • Neurotransmitter binds with postsynaptic receptors producing EPSPs & IPSPs I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals • Neurotransmitters disengage… – some are broken down by an enzyme – others are taken back into the presynaptic neuron I. Cells of the Brain II. Types of neural signals • EPSPs & IPSPs are integrated and if EPSPs > IPSPs, then...
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Loeb during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Biology - Introduction to General Introduction to General...

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