Chapter 3 Outline

Chapter 3 Outline - Alec Rubenstein Chapter 3 The...

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Alec Rubenstein - 9/07/09 Chapter 3 – The Biological Bases of Behavior I. Communication in the Nervous System a.i. Neurons - Individual cells that receive, integrate and transmit information a.i.1. Soma –cell body, contains nucleus and much co chemical machinery common to most cells a.i.2. Dendrites – receive info a.i.3. Axon – thin fiber that transmits signals away from soma to other neurons, muscles or glands a.i.4. Myelin sheath-insulating material that encases axons a.i.5. Terminal buttons-end of axon, small knobs that secrete chemical neurotransmitters a.i.6. Synapse-junction where info sent from one neuron to another a.ii. Glia – support cells through nervous system a.iii. Sending Information a.iii.1. Resting Potential – neurons’ stable, negative charge when inactive a.iii.2. Action Potential – brief shift in neuron’s electrical charge that travels along axon, positive charged sodium ions a.iii.2.a. All-or-None Law a.iii.3. Absolute refractory period –min. length which action potential cannot begin – “down time” , milliseconds a.iv. Synapse a.iv.1. Synaptic Cleft – miscroscopic gap between terminal button of one neuron and cell membrane of another a.iv.1.a. Presynaptic neuron to Postsynaptic neuron a.iv.2. Neurotransmitters – chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another a.iv.2.a. Synaptic vesicles – bind at various receptor sites a.iv.3. Postsynaptic Potentials – receiving signals a.iv.3.a. PSP – a voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane a.iv.3.a.i. Grade, vary in size, increase or decrease the probability of a neural impulse in the receiving cell a.iv.3.a.ii. Excitatory PSP – positive voltage shift that increases likelihood of postsynaptic neuron firing action potentials a.iv.3.a.iii. Inhibitory PSP – negative voltage shift that decreases the likelihood a.iv.3.b. Reuptake – neurotransmitters are sponged up from synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane a.v. Common Neurotransmitters
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a.v.1. Acetylcholines – activates motor neuron w/ skeletal muscles, contributes to regulation of attention, arousal and memory, Some Ach receptors stimulated by Nicotine a.v.1.a. Agonist – chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter a.v.1.b.
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Loeb during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Chapter 3 Outline - Alec Rubenstein Chapter 3 The...

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