Learning

Learning - Introduction to General Psychology Introduction...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Introduction to General Psychology Introduction to General Psychology Dr. Jeannie Loeb I. What is learning? (Hilgard & Bower): Learning refers to the change (Hilgard & Bower): Learning refers to the change in a person’s behavior to a given situation brought about by his repeated experiences in that situation, provided that the behavior change cannot be explained on the basis of native response tendencies, maturation, or temporary states of the subject (e.g., fatigue, drugs, etc.). Relatively durable change in behavior (overt or mental) that is due to experience. . What is What learning? learning? I. Types Classical Conditional (aka Pavlovian Conditioning) Operant Condition (aka Instrumental Learning) Observational learning (modeling) . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng History Pavlov & psychic reflexes demonstration . What is What learning? learning? Terminology/process I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Unconditioned stimulus (US) naturally elicits a response Unconditioned response (UR) natural response to US Conditioned stimulus (CS) a previously neutral stimulus which, after pairings with a US, attains the ability to elicit the same response Conditioned response (CR) the response to the CS (which looks like the UR, at least on the surface) Biological influence . What is What learning? learning? Acquisition Extinction I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Spontaneous Recovery Stimulus Generalization vs. Stimulus Discrimination Higher order conditioning . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Acquisition stimulus contiguity simultaneous presentation tone meat short­delayed presentation tone meat trace presentation tone meat . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Acquisition saliency of stimulus . What is What learning? learning? Biological influence on Conditioning Conditioned taste aversion I. Types II. II. Classical evolutionary Conditioni adaptation Conditioni ng ecologically relevant vs. arbitrary, neutral stimulus one trial extended delay between CS (scorpions) & US (illness due to flu) food stimuli­nausea associations likely . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Extinction Presentation of the CS alone, without the UCS . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Extinction Spontaneous recovery . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Stimulus generalization vs. Stimulus discrimination . What is What learning? learning? Higher order conditioning CS functions as a UCS I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Eating pizza makes Kendall drool. . What is What learning? learning? I. Types Higher order conditioning CS functions as a UCS The sight of pizza can now elicit the same response that eating the pizza did. II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng The mere sight of pizza makes Kendall drool = 1st order conditioning . What is What learning? learning? Higher order conditioning CS functions as a UCS I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Kari would prefer that Kendall drool when he sees her. Using the powers of classical conditioning, Kari sets out to make Kendall drool for her. . What is What learning? learning? Higher order conditioning CS functions as a UCS I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Since she knows that Kendall drools at the sight of pizza, she begins to wear shirts with a picture of a pizza on it. . What is What learning? learning? Higher order conditioning CS functions as a UCS I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng Sure enough, when Kendall sees Kari and the pizza shirt, he drools. . What is What learning? learning? Higher order conditioning CS functions as a UCS I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng After several pairings, Kari is able to elicit the drooling that the mere sight of pizza could elicit = 2nd order conditioning. . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng B. F. Skinner 1904 ­ 1990 V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng History . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Terminology/process Acquisition . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Terminology/process Shaping? reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Terminology/process Types of consequences reinforcement consequence that ↑ tendency to consequence repeat preceding behavior repeat punishment consequence that ↓ tendency to consequence decrease preceding behavior decrease . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Terminology/process Types of consequences reinforcement positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment (positive) punishment (negative) punishment . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Terminology/process Types of consequences reinforcement positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment (positive) punishment (negative) punishment = adding something in . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Terminology/process Types of consequences reinforcement positive reinforcement negative reinforcement punishment (positive) punishment (negative) punishment = taking something out Putting it all together… Putting it all together… Positive reinforcement: “Adding something in” that “increases response tendency” Negative reinforcement: “Taking something out” that “increases response tendency” (Positive) punishment: “Adding something in” that “decreases response tendency” (Negative) punishment: “Taking something out” that “decreases response tendency” . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng (positive) punishment corporeal punishment poor­quality parent­child relationship elevated aggression delinquency behavioral problems increased likelihood of child abuse however, unclear if the above occurs in cases of mild, judicious spankings (still, minimizing use seems wise considering the possible negative consequences) . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Schedules of reinforcement continuous reinforcement intermittent reinforcement fixed­ratio schedule variable­ratio schedule fixed­interval schedule variable­interval schedule Different reinforcement schedules Different reinforcement schedules result in different pattern of responses Number of responses stepwise scalloped Tick marks are the reinforcements TIME Which type of reinforcement schedule Which type of reinforcement schedule results in greatest resistance to extinction? Variable­Ratio . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Extinction . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Biological influence on Conditioning Instinctive drift . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Stimulus generalization vs. stimulus discrimination Environmental stimuli can indicate the probable consequence of a response, thus influencing the operant behavior . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. II. Classical Conditioni Conditioni ng V. Operant V. Conditioni Conditioni ng Classical conditioning & operant conditioning are often used together… e.g., phobias Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning CS UCR UCS Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning CS CR Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning • Behavior of avoiding = ↓ anxiety • ↓ anxiety = reinforcing • ↑ likelihood that baby will avoid dog again… . What is What learning? learning? I. Types Cognition in classical conditioning & operant conditioning? NO!!! II. Classical John B. Watson: II. Conditioning early 1900s Conditioning V. Operant V. Conditioning Conditioning B. F. Skinner: mid­1900s . What is What learning? learning? Cognition in classical conditioning & operant conditioning? Latent Learning (Edward Tolman 1930s &1940s ) I. Types II. Classical II. Conditioning Conditioning V. Operant V. Conditioning Conditioning Group A: reinforcement with every trial Group B: no reinforcements Group C: reinforcement beginning with 10th . What is What learning? learning? Implications: learning can take place w/o reinforcement mental representation of map motivation I. Types II. Classical II. Conditioning Conditioning reinforcement with every trial V. Operant V. Conditioning Conditioning Group A: steadily improved no reinforcements reinforcement beginning with 10th trial Group B: little improvement Group C: sharply improved behavior after trial 10 . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. Classical II. Conditioning Conditioning V. Operant V. Conditioning Conditioning Cognition in classical conditioning & operant conditioning? Predictive value of conditioned stimulus (Robert Rescorla, 1970s & 1980s) . What is What learning? learning? History I. Types II. Classical II. Conditioning Conditioning V. Operant V. Conditioning Conditioning . Observational Observational learning learning Albert Bandura 1970s, 1980s . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. Classical II. Conditioning Conditioning V. Operant V. Conditioning Conditioning . Observational Observational learning learning Terminology/processes observation of model cognitive processes attention retention reproduction motivation . What is What learning? learning? I. Types II. Classical II. Conditioning Conditioning V. Operant V. Conditioning Conditioning . Observational Observational learning learning vicarious classical and operant conditioning ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Loeb during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online