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Psychology Review Guide

Psychology Review Guide - Alec Rubenstein Psychology 101...

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Alec Rubenstein Psychology 101 Final Exam Review Dr. Loeb Chapters 12, 13, 14 & 15 What types of stressors have we discussed? Frustration- experienced whenever the pursuit of some goal is thwarted Conflict – when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression o Approach-approach conflict – a choice must be made between two attractive goals o Avoidance-avoidance conflict – choice must be made between two unattractive goals o Approach-avoidance conflict – choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects Change – any noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment Pressure – involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way, conform How can we measure stress? How did Holmes & Rahe measure stress? What are the pros and cons of their questionnaire of stress? Measure stress using a Social Readjustment Rating Scale and assigning values to different types of change. Holmes & Rahe measured stress using a scale that reflected the magnitude of stress. Pros: Those with higher scores are more vulnerable to many kinds of physical illness and many of the types of psychological problems Cons: problems with methods used and interpreting the findings. Doesn’t prove that change is a true stress How does physiological arousal (e.g., due to stress and/or anxiety) affect performance? On simple tasks physical arousal increases performance, on medium tasks, its an inverted U-shape, medium arousal causes high performance then a decrease, on hard tasks, high level of physical arousal decreases performance What is the fight or flight response? What body system is responsible for this? The fight or flight responses are the bodies reactions to stress. The Sympathetic division of the Autonomic Nervous system is responsible for this. What theory did Selye propose? Know this theory in detail, e.g., What are the different stages? Why is it called the General Adaptation Syndrome? How are the SAM and HPAC axes related to this theory? What chemicals do the SAM & HPAC axes release and how does it affect the body? What is a negative effect of having consistent release of high levels of cortisol? When would you have too much cortisol being released? Selye proposed the General Adaptation Syndrome – model of the body’s stress response, consisting of three stages: alarm-physical arousal as body prepares to fight, resistance- physical changes stabilize as coping efforts get under way, but continues to be elevated, and exhaustion-body’s resources are limited , eventually the organism collapses from exhaustion.
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Named General Adaptation Syndrome because stress reactions are nonspecific – reactions don’t vary according to the specific type of stress encountered 2 major pathways o SAM Axis – hypothalamus activates the sympathetic division of the ANS, stimulating the central part of the adrenal glands to release large amounts of catecholamine into the bloodstream.
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Psychology Review Guide - Alec Rubenstein Psychology 101...

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