Stress & Health Powerpoint

Stress & Health Powerpoint - Introductory...

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Unformatted text preview: Introductory Psychology Introductory Dr. Jeannie Loeb I. History Health & illness Health – Past: Past: biology biology infections – Present: biopsychology chronic diseases health psychology I. History I. II. Stress Weiten: Stress is any circumstance(s) that threatens or is perceived to threaten one’s wellis being and tax one’s coping being abilities. abilities. Stressor is any circumstance(s) that threatens or is perceived to threaten one’s well-being and tax one’s coping abilities. I. History II. Stress Stress: organism’s experience Stress: I. History II. Stress III. Stressors Subjective Subjective – Lazarus: appraisal Frustration I. History II. Stress III. Stressors Subjective Subjective – Lazarus: appraisal Frustration Conflict – approach-approach I. History II. Stress III. Stressors Subjective Subjective – Lazarus: appraisal Frustration Conflict – avoidance-avoidance I. History II. Stress III. Stressors Subjective Subjective – Lazarus: appraisal Frustration Conflict – approach-avoidance I. History II. Stress III. Stressors Subjective Subjective – Lazarus: appraisal Frustration Conflict – approach-avoidance Pressure I. History II. Stress III. Stressors Change Change – Holmes & Ray’s Social Holmes Readjustment Scale (SRRS) Readjustment I. History II. Stress III. Stressors Change Change – Holmes & Ray’s Social Holmes Readjustment Scale Readjustment Were all your top 8 stressors Were listed? listed? Was the rank order and/or Was stress rating the same? stress Were most of your stressors Were negative? negative? I. History II. Stress III. Stressors Change Change – Holmes & Ray’s Social Holmes Readjustment Scale Readjustment Cons: – lack of comprehensiveness – strength of the stressor is subjective – negative life events, not just negative “change” “change” I. History II. Stress III. Stressors Daily hassles vs. major event (acute stressor) vs. chronic stressor stressor I. History 4 Different Different II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Potential Response Stressor Objective Events components S ss tre Cognitive Appraisal Emotional Response Physiological Response Behavioral Response I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Lazarus: Cognitive appraisal Lazarus: – primary appraisal – secondary appraisal – re-appraisal I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Emotional component Emotional – mostly negative, but some positive – tied to cognitions self-blame → guilt self-blame guilt helplessness → sadness helplessness sadness I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Physiological component Physiological – arousal & task performance: arousal inverted-U hypothesis inverted-U Emotional arousal → I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Physiological component Physiological – SAM axis sympathetic nerves → adrenal medulla sympathetic → NE, Epi NE, (Cannon) Fight or Flight response I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Physiological component Physiological – HPAC axis hypothalamus→ adrenal cortex → cortisol cortisol I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Physiological component Physiological – Selye’s General Adaptation Selye’s Syndrome Syndrome response changes over time + = SAM ALARM HPAC + RESISTANC E EXHAUSTION I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Physiological component Physiological – Selye’s General Adaptation Selye’s Syndrome Syndrome response changes over time non-specific response + = SAM ALARM HPAC + RESISTANC E EXHAUSTION I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Physiological component Physiological – Selye’s General Adaptation Selye’s Syndrome Syndrome response changes over time non-specific response non-specific adaptation adaptation Alarm Resistance Exhaustion Trying to restore homeostasis But abnormal response to more stressors I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Behavioral response Behavioral – Coping Inescapable Shock Giving up Escapable shock I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Behavioral response Behavioral – Coping Blaming oneself I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Behavioral response Behavioral – Coping Striking out I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Behavioral response Behavioral – Coping Indulging self I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Behavioral response Behavioral – Coping Defensive coping Defensive – e.g., Freud’s defense mechanisms, e.g., avoidance, wishful thinking avoidance, – often unconscious, self-deceptions – less optimal – small amount = mentally healthy I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response Behavioral response Behavioral – Coping vs. constructive coping – problem-solving – reasonably realistic appraisals of stressor & reasonably coping resources coping – control of (disruptive) emotions – protect body – e.g., reappraisal (Ellis’s rational thinking), e.g., humor, releasing pent-up emotions (NOT venting), managing hostility/forgiving others, learning to relax learning I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health Three ways: Three – directly stressor = ↑ CV arousal = ↑blood stressor blood pressure pressure – iindirectly ndirectly stressor = indulging oneself = negative consequences consequences – stress-diathesis model stressor + biological vulnerability = stressor physical damage physical I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health Personality (hostility) & CVD Personality – Why be concerned about CVD? I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health Personality (hostility) & CVD Personality – Major cause of CVDs? atherosclerosis & inflammation C-reactive protein (CRP) Other risk factors: age, smoking, lack of Other exercise, high cholesterol levels, high BP BP I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health Personality (hostility) & CVD Personality – Major cause of CVDs? atherosclerosis & inflammation C-reactive protein (CRP) Other risk factors: age, smoking, lack of Other exercise, high cholesterol levels, high BP BP Type A vs. Type B personality – Friedman & Rosenman (1974) – Type A: strong competitive orientation, Type impatience & time urgency, anger & hostility impatience – Type B: relatively relaxed, patient, Type easygoing, amicable behavior easygoing, – Anger & hostility I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health Negative emotions & CVD Negative – ↑ cardiovascular reactivity (among CV patients) = ↑ risk of future heart attack attack – anger = frequent trigger of heart anger attack attack – ↑ depression (non-cardiac patients) = ↑ risk of future heart attack risk – ↑ depression (cardiac patients) = ↑ risk of future heart attack risk I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health Stress & Disease Stress – e.g., lower back pain, development e.g., of diabetes, herpes, etc. of – via the immune system Stress SAM PARA HPAC Epi Ach Cort. Increase arousal Dampen SAM Mobilize Stored Energy Immune System Leukocytes Inflammation I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health Stress & Disease Stress – e.g., lower back pain, development e.g., of diabetes, herpes, etc. of – via the immune system (animals) crowding, shock, restraint = (animals) ↓ immune functioning immune (humans) : (Kiecolt-Glaser) medical students during (Kiecolt-Glaser) the final exam the – – – blood samples SRRS (measure of stress) loneliness) Cohen’s cold study I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health Strength of stress & disease link Strength – most studies are correlational – strength = modest (r= .2 or .3) I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health VI. Buffers Social Support Social – students + strong support = ↑ students antibody levels antibody – corre. with better immune functioning – corre. with better physical AND corre. mental health mental – providing help = beneficial – pets I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health VI. Buffers Optimism Optimism – corre. w/good health, better immune corre. functioning functioning – corre. with better coping corre. e.g., problem-focused coping, seeking social support social – optimistic explanatory style corre. optimistic with better health, better academic achievement, higher marital satisfaction, etc. satisfaction, I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health VI. Buffers VII. Positives of VII. stress? stress? Positive aspects of stress Positive – brief stressor vs. prolonged brief stressor** stressor** – promotes personal growth e.g., new skills new insights I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health VI. Buffers VII. Positives of VII. stress? stress? VIII. Healthiimpairing mpairing behaviors behaviors Smoking Smoking – premature death (13-14 yr. loss) – ↑ risk of CVD & cancers & pulmonary ailments ailments – barriers to quitting: giving up barriers pleasure, fear of weight gain, irritability, less able to deal with stress stress I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health VI. Buffers VII. Positives of VII. stress? stress? VIII. Healthiimpairing mpairing behaviors behaviors Smoking Smoking – quitting: 25% success rate – psychotherapy and/or medication = ? psychotherapy success rate success Poor nutrition – dietary cholesterol & serum dietary cholesterol? cholesterol? – llow intake of fiber, omega 3 fatty ow acids acids – high intake of red & processed high meats, refined grains and/or sweets meats, – high salt intake – high caffeine intake I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health VI. Buffers VII. Positives of VII. stress? stress? VIII. Healthiimpairing mpairing behaviors behaviors Lack of exercise Lack – longevity CV, cancers, obesity-related disorders buffer against stress & mildly negative buffer mood** mood** I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health VI. Buffers VII. Positives of VII. stress? stress? VIII. Healthiimpairing mpairing behaviors behaviors Behavior & HIV/AIDS Behavior – HIV vs. AIDS – fluid exchange & drug use esp. homosexual contact iinfections among heterosexuals: nfections females > males females tears, saliva (but very low concentration) breastfeeding casual contact – adherence to highly active antiretroviral adherence therapy (HAART) therapy I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health VI. Buffers VII. Positives of VII. stress? stress? VIII. Healthiimpairing mpairing behaviors behaviors IX. Other Health Psyc issues Seeking healthcare Seeking – Interpretation of body signs as Interpretation symptoms symptoms high in neuroticism and/or anxiety attentive to body signs – Biggest problem: delay in seeking Biggest attention—why? attention—why? misinterpretation of symptoms looking silly “bothering” physician don’t want to disrupt plans waste time on trivial matters I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health VI. Buffers VII. Positives of VII. stress? stress? VIII. Healthiimpairing mpairing behaviors behaviors IX. Other Health Psyc issues Communication with health providers Communication – crucial for understanding problem, crucial adhering to Tx, making health care decisions, etc. decisions, – Barriers: medical jargon, lack of Barriers: education of patients, not reporting all symptoms (forgetting, embarrassment), patients are too passive passive I. History II. Stress III. Stressors IV. Stress Response V. Stress & V. Health Health VI. Buffers VII. Positives of VII. stress? stress? VIII. Healthiimpairing mpairing behaviors behaviors IX. Other Health Psyc issues Adhering to medical Tx Adhering – 30% (acute illness) & 50% (longterm illness) = nonadherence – many forms: e.g., miss many appointments, stop treatment early, etc. etc. – consequences: increased sickness, consequences: higher mortality, wastes medical resources resources – factors which influence adherence: social support social understanding instructions understanding aversiveness of treatment liking physician ...
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