Test 2 booknotes

Test 2 booknotes - Psyc 101: Test 2 I. Chapter 5 1. Nature...

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Psyc 101: Test 2 I. Chapter 5 1. Nature of Dreams 1.a. Most dreams are mundane about family, friends, etc. 1.b. People dream a lot about sex, aggression, and misfortune, and themselves 1.c. Or falling, everyday life, and being chased 1.d. Dreams are electrochemical events that include the cortex 1.e. Dreaming may be a cognitive ability 2. Culture and Dreams 2.a. Western culture views dreams as imaginary and insignificant 2.b. In other cultures dreams are viewed as gateways to the future, spiritual world, and thought to have a deeper connection with the dream’s current life 3. Theories of Dreaming 3.a. Freud – purpose of dreams is wish fulfillment 3.b. Cartwright – dreams provide an opportunity to work through everyday problems 3.c. Hobson and McCarley – activation-synthesis model proposes that dreams are side effects of the neural activation that produces wide awake brain waves during REM sleep which hit the cortex which synthesizes a dream to make sense of the signals II. Chapter 6 – Learning - Refers to a relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge due to experience - Influences personality, habits, emotions, etc. 1. Habituation – becoming familiar w/ a stimulus – repeated sounds and movement 2. Classical Conditioning – stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus (pairing of 2 stimuli) 2.a. Pavlovian Conditioning 2.a.i. Unconditioned stimulus – normal stimulus – food 2.a.ii. Unconditioned response – normal response – salivation 2.a.iii. Conditioned Stimulus – added stimulus – bell 2.a.iv. Conditioned response – learned reaction to the CS – salivation 2.a.v. UR and CR are virtually the same thing 2.b. Fear and anxiety - phobias 2.c. Immune System – UCR = drug, UCS – decrease antibodies 2.c.i.a.i. CR – some liquid, CS – decreased antibodies 2.d. Principles 2.d.i. Acquisition – first learning of a something 2.d.i.a. Stimuli are novel unusual or especially intense have more potential to become CS than routine stimuli 2.d.ii. Extinction – gradual weakening of a CR tendency 2.d.iii. Spontaneous Recovery – reappearance of an extinguished response after a pd. Of no exposure to the CS
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2.d.iv. Generalization – have the same CR to a stimulus that is similar to the UCR or CR 2.d.v. Discrimination – ability to tell the difference between a stimulus that resembles the CR and the CR 2.e. High order conditioning – when a CR begins to act like a UCR for a new CS 2.f. Classical is based on what happens before 3. Operant Conditioning – based on what happens after 3.a. Response is associated w/ a consequence 3.b. Behavior becomes more/less probably depending on consequence 3.c. B.F. Skinner – skinner box – push button/lever get food 3.d. Organism operates on the envt. instead of simply reacting to stimuli 3.e. Form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences 3.f. Reinforcement – an event following a response increases an organism’s
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Loeb during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Test 2 booknotes - Psyc 101: Test 2 I. Chapter 5 1. Nature...

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