Psychology Final Exam Review completed

Psychology Final Exam Review completed - Psychology Final...

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Psychology Final Exam Review I. Introductory Lecture (5 Questions) a. Psychology Evolved from the following fields: a.i. Philosophy a.i.1. Ability to reason a.i.2. Behavior, observation a.ii. Biology a.ii.1. Measured speed of neuron (Helmholtz) b. Significant Contributors to Psychology (in early years): b.i. Wilhelm Wundt—“Founder of Psychology”; founded the first psychology lab and the first psychology journal b.ii. Hall—first US lab and psych journal b.iii. William James—wrote the first psychology text book b.iv. Freud—theory of the unconscious, psychoanalysis, sexual urges as a motivator of the unconscious b.v. John B. Watson—Behaviorism: study of over behavior and environment through biological factors and how control is an environmental factor; “free will is an illusion” BF Skinner—experimental analysis of overt behavior c. Psychological Movements: c.i. Structuralism c.i.1. Elements, units of the mind through introspection c.ii. Functionalism c.ii.1. Focus on the purpose of feelings, emotions, experiences, why we’ve adapted to be this way c.ii.2. Flow/stream of consciousness c.iii. Humanism c.iii.1. Positive psychology c.iii.2. Emphasis on choice c.iv. Cognitive Psychology c.iv.1. Using new methods to explore consciousness c.v. Evolutionary Psycholog c.v.1. Functionalism c.v.2. Positive psychology Psychoanalysis and Behaviorism (See Below) d. Major Types of Psychology: (Research—designed to gain knowledge) d.i. Clinical/Abnormal Psychology: medical illness d.ii. Cognitive Psychology: methods of exploring consciousness d.iii. Developmental Psychology: children, growth d.iv. Personality Psychology: personalities d.v. Physiological/Biological Psychology: what supports our behavior in the brain Quantitative Psychology: statistical analyses e. Applied Fields: (delivers professional service to the public) e.i. Clinical Psychology: health
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e.ii. Educational and School Psychology: how to teach and learn e.iii. Industrial Psychology: workplace psychology II. Chapter 2 (Research, 8 Questions) a. Scientific Method a.i. Formulate a Hypothesis a.ii. Design the Study a.ii.1. Experiments a.ii.2. Quasi-experiments a.ii.3. Non-experiments a.iii. Collect the Data a.iii.1. Naturalistic observation a.iii.2. Surveys (questionnaires, interviews) a.iii.3. Experiments (observations, physiological readings) a.iv. Analyze the Data, Draw Conclusions a.iv.1. Descriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, correlation) a.iv.2. Inferential statistics (universal truths, generalizations, taken samples, probability that the sample is accurate) a.v. Report the Findings a.v.1. Write a report a.v.2. Specific formatting a.v.3. Submit to a peer reviewed journal a.v.4. “Publish or Perish” b. Hypothesis vs. Theory b.i. Hypothesis is a tentative guess, often simple, and easy to test b.ii. Theory: an explanation, can be complicated but it is difficult to disprove c. Components of an Experiment c.i. Purpose: to determine causality c.ii. Variable: anything that can change (manipulation of a variable)
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Psychology Final Exam Review completed - Psychology Final...

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