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Variables - Subject – demand characteristics cues that...

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Variables o IV Expect to cause an outcome Comes before the outcome Is controlled and manipulated Levels of the IV= # of condition in the experiment o DV Outcome variable Measured Value depends on the IV o Empirical realization AKA Operationalization – translating the conceptual or abstract variables contained in the hypothesis to real, measurable constructs Conceptual – Abstract (compassion) Operational – the way you manipulate the IV and measure the DV ($ in aid) Advantages o Explore causal relationships between variable o Can be confident that effects are due to manipulated variables and not other factors Disadvantages o Controlled experimental setting are often unrealistic o Effects may not be generalizable to real life o Bias: REPLICATION IS THE SOLUTION Experimenter – keep experimenters blind to conditions
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Unformatted text preview: Subject – demand characteristics: cues that make subject aware of how the experimenter expect them to behave (goal is to keep participants unaware of hypotheses) • Validity o Internal The independent variable is the only factor in the experiment that can affect the dependent variable • All changes in the DV are due to the IV o External The extent to which the study’s results apply to people and situations outside of the lab o Check and interpret results How the variables were operationalized o Report the results Done at the abstract level • Theory testing o Theory about what causes a behavior o Hypothesis derived from theory o Test hypothesis Prediction confirmed • More confidence in theory Prediction not confirmed • Less confidence in theory...
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