o Acoustic signal o Speech sounds Source-filter model of speech production (vowels) - Speech sounds result from a combination of a source and periodic sound energy (larynx) and an acoustic filter (supralaryngeal vocal tract) The filter modulates the laryngeal signal, amplifying some frequencies and attenuating other Specific sounds of each vowel are determined by the length, volume and shape of vocal tract (the vocal tract shapes the sounds that come out of the mouth) o Problem of phonemic variability • Strategies of speech perception Light • What is light? o Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation that behaves in three ways: As a ray that ravels at high speed in a straight line(geometric optics) As discrete packets or particles of energy (photons) that can be counted individually at low light levels (quantum mechanics) As a wave vibrating at a specific frequency. The wave properties of light explain its behavior at very find scales (physical optics) o Light can transmit a surface (glass, water) if its density is much different than air
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