Imre-PhD-Thesis

Imre-PhD-Thesis - EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF NANOMAGNETS FOR...

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Unformatted text preview: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF NANOMAGNETS FOR MAGNETIC QUANTUM- DOT CELLULAR AUTOMATA (MQCA) LOGIC APPLICATIONS A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Notre Dame in Partial Fulfillments of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Alexandra Imre, M.S. ______________________________ Wolfgang Porod, Director ______________________________ Gary H. Bernstein, Co-director Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering Notre Dame, Indiana April 2005 EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF NANOMAGNETS FOR MAGNETIC QUANTUM- DOT CELLULAR AUTOMATA (MQCA) LOGIC APPLICATIONS Abstract By Alexandra Imre Nanomagnets that exhibit only two stable states of magnetization can represent digital bits. Magnetic random access memories store binary information in such nanomagnets, and currently, fabrication of dense arrays of nanomagnets is also under development for application in hard disk drives. The latter faces the challenge of avoiding magnetic dipole interactions between the individual elements in the arrays, which limits data storage density. On the contrary, these interactions are utilized in the magnetic quantum- dot cellular automata (MQCA) system, which is a network of closely-spaced, dipole- coupled, single-domain nanomagnets designed for digital computation. MQCA offers very low power dissipation together with high integration density of functional devices, as QCA implementations do in general. In addition, MQCA can operate over a wide temperature range from sub-Kelvin to the Curie temperature. Information propagation and inversion have previously been demonstrated in MQCA. In this dissertation, room temperature operation of the basic MQCA logic gate, i.e. the three-input majority gate, is demonstrated for the first time. Alexandra Imre The samples were fabricated on silicon wafers by using electron-beam lithography for patterning thermally evaporated ferromagnetic metals. The networks of nanomagnets were imaged by magnetic force microscopy (MFM), with which individual magnetization states were distinguished and mapped. Magnetic dipole-ordering in the networks was investigated in different samples. Average ordering lengths were calculated by statistical analysis of the MFM images taken after several independent demagnetization processes. The average ordering length was found to be dependent on the shape and size of the nanomagnets and limited by defects introduced during fabrication. Defect tolerant shape-design was investigated in samples of many different ring-shaped and elongated nanomagnets. The shape-effects were explained by means of micromagnetic simulations. The majority gate was demonstrated by employing NiFe polycrystalline nanomagnets with 70 nm x 120 nm lateral sizes. Inputs were provided by additional nanomagnets fabricated together with the gate, and the operation was tested by MFM....
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Imre-PhD-Thesis - EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF NANOMAGNETS FOR...

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