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Unformatted text preview: 778 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 10, NO. 4, JULY 2011 Ultra-Low Power Nanomagnet-Based Computing: A System-Level Perspective Charles Augustine, Xuanyao Fong, Behtash Behin-Aein, and Kaushik Roy , Fellow, IEEE Abstract MOSFET scaling is facing overwhelming challenges with increased parameter variations, exponentially higher leak- age current, and higher power density. Thus, researchers have started looking at alternative switching devices and spintronics- based computing paradigms. Nanomagnet-based computing is one such paradigm with intrinsic switching energy close to thermal limits and scalability down to 5 nm. In this paper, we explore the possibility of nanomagnet-based design using nonmajority gates. The design approach can offer significant area, delay, and energy advantages compared to majority-gate-based designs. Moreover, new clock technologies and architectures are developed to improve computation robustness and power dissipation of nanomagnet sys- tems. We also developed a comprehensive device/circuit/system compatible simulation framework to evaluate the functionality and architecture of a nanomagnet system and conducted a feasibil- ity/comparison study to determine the effectiveness of the tech- nology compared to standard digital electronics. Performance re- sults from a nanomagnet-based 16-point discrete cosine transform (DCT) with enhanced clock architecture, narrow gap cladding of nanomagnets, or embedding nanomagnets in solenoid with steel core, together with near neighbor system architecture, show up to 10 improvement over subthreshold 15 nm CMOS (Vdd = 90 mV) design, using energy-delay . 5-area product (ED . 5 A) as com- parison metric. Finally, we explored the scalability of nanomagnets and the effectiveness of field-based switching. Index Terms Low power, nanomagnet, spintronics, systolic array architectures. I. INTRODUCTION M OSFET scaling, which aided the exponential growth of semiconductor industry, is approaching its fundamental physical limits. Hence, research has started in earnest to explore next-generation switches, either in the charge domain or in the noncharge-based domain. Moreover, MOSFETs are associ- ated with parametric variations and temporal reliability degra- dation, which have significant impact on circuit and system performance (delay, power, and area). Thus, alternative switch- ing devices based on electron spin are being investigated to overcome the limitations associated with Si-MOSFET devices. Spin-based logic and its variants have been theoretically stud- ied and experimentally demonstrated over the past 30 years as Manuscript received November 23, 2009; revised June 19, 2010; accepted July 12, 2010. Date of publication September 23, 2010; date of current version July 8, 2011. This work was supported by the Nanoelectronics Research Initia- tive. The review of this paper was arranged by Associate Editor D. Litvinov....
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This note was uploaded on 11/28/2011 for the course COMP 790 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at UNC.
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