Lec 5 Ch 3 Minerals and Rocks

Lec 5 Ch 3 Minerals and Rocks - CHAPTER 3: Earth Materials,...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 3: Earth Materials, Minerals and Rocks 1. Chemical classes of minerals. 1. The physical properties of minerals. 1. The nature of rocks. 4. The three great rock types. 5. The distribution of rock types on (and near) the surface of the Earth. 6. Some common minerals of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. 7. The rock cycle. Lecture Outline 5. Chemical Classes of Minerals Classified by their defining anions . Table 3.1: Some Chemical Classes of Minerals CLASS DEFINING ANIONS COMMON CATIONS EXAMPLES Silicates Silicate (SiO 4 )-4 Quartz (SiO 2 ) Olivine (Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 Na +2 Ca +2 K +1 , Mg +2 Al +3 Fe +2 quartz Silicate chemical formula is SiO 2 in quartz; in some other silicates, it is SiO 4 . WHY? O (Oxygen) Si (Silicon) The silicate tetrahedra Mg (Magnesium) Magnesium Olivine Fosterite Mg 2 (SiO 4 ) Silicate chemical formula is SiO 2 in quartz; in some other silicates, it is SiO 4 . WHY? Fe (Iron) Iron Olivine Fayalite Fe 2 (SiO 4 ) Olivine silicate tetrahedra exist as isolated terahedra. The silicate tetrahedra in quartz exists in an interconnected three-dimensional framework O (Oxygen) Si (Silicon) The silicate tetrahedra QUARTZ ( SiO 2 ) Silicate chemical formula is SiO 2 in quartz; in some other silicates, it is SiO 4 . WHY? The silicate tetrahedra in orthoclase (potassium feldspar) also exists in an interconnected three- dimensional framework O (Oxygen) Si (Silicon) The silicate tetrahedra POTASSIUM FELDPAR ORTHOCLASE ( KAlSi 3 O 8 ) Silicate chemical formula is SiO 2 in quartz; in some other silicates, it is SiO 4 . WHY? Al (Aluminum) K (Potassium) Table 3.1: Some Chemical Classes of Minerals CLASS DEFINING ANIONS COMMON CATIONS EXAMPLES Silicates Silicate (SiO 4 )-4 Quartz (SiO 2 ) Olivine (Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 Carbonates Carbonate (CO 3 )-2 Calcite (CaCO 3 ) Na +2 Ca +2 K +1 , Mg +2 Al +3 Fe +2 Ca +2 Mg +2 Fe +2 Carbonates Limestone, a common sedimentary rock, is composed primarily of calcite (calcium carbonate). Calcite Limestone Table 3.1: Some Chemical Classes of Minerals CLASS DEFINING ANIONS COMMON CATIONS EXAMPLES Silicates Silicate (SiO 4 )-4 Quartz (SiO 2 ) Olivine (Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 Carbonates Carbonate (CO 3 )-2 Calcite (CaCO 3 ) Sulfates Sulfate (SO 4 )-2 Anhydrite (CaSO 4 ) Gypsum (CaSO 4 )+H 2 O Na +2 Ca +2 K +1 , Mg +2 Al +3 Fe +2 Ca +2 Mg +2 Fe +2 Ca +2 , Ba +2 , Mg +2 Sulfates Gypsum and anhydrite, both calcium sulfate minerals, are common in sedimentary rocks anhydrite Table 3.1: Some Chemical Classes of Minerals CLASS DEFINING ANIONS COMMON CATIONS EXAMPLES Silicates Silicate (SiO 4 )-4 Quartz (SiO 2 ) Olivine (Mg, Fe) 2 SiO 4 Carbonates Carbonate (CO 3 )-2 Calcite (CaCO 3 ) Sulfates Sulfate (SO 4 )-2 Anhydrite (CaSO 4 ) Gypsum (CaSO 4 )+H 2 O Na +2 Ca +2 K +1 , Mg +2 Al +3 Fe +2 Ca +2 Mg +2 Fe +2 Ca +2 , Ba +2 , Mg +2 Oxides (and Hydroxides) Brucite (Magnesium hydroxide) and bauxite (aluminum hydroxide) are rock- forming minerals often mined as magnesium and aluminum ores...
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Lec 5 Ch 3 Minerals and Rocks - CHAPTER 3: Earth Materials,...

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