14.2+Aging+and+Memory - Images of the Aging Mind Images...

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Unformatted text preview: Images of the Aging Mind Images Cognitive Aging: Behavioral Results Cognitive Age and the building blocks of cognition: • Working memory: how much capacity do we have? • Long-term memory: how durable are memory traces? • World Knowledge: Accrued effects of experience Verbal Working Memory: How Much? Verbal aa.99 . b. .15 b 15 cc.10 . 10 aa.11 . 11 b. .17 b 17 cc.10 . 10 Experimenter says: 6+3= Subject presses A, since 6 + 3 = 9. Experimenter says: 2+8= Subject presses C, since 2 + 8 = 10. Subject RECALLS 3 and 8 on Subject paper. paper. Verbal and Visuo-spatial Working Memory Capacity across the LifeMemory span 1.2 Reading Span Verbal 0.8 Computation Span - Verbal Z-scores 0.4 Line Span Spatial 0 Letter Rotation - Spatial -0.4 n = 350 -0.8 -1.2 20's 30's 40's 50's 60's Age Groups 70's 80's Short-term Recall Short-term STUDY 24 words book dress song bank Wait 5 minutes Recall words Short-Term Recall for Verbal and Visuo-spatial materials and 1.2 Cued Recall Verbal 0.8 Free Recall Verbal Z-scores 0.4 Rey - Spatial 0 Benton Spatial -0.4 n = 350 -0.8 -1.2 20's 30's 40's 50's 60's Age Groups 70's 80's World Knowledge: Impact of Experience Experience Measures of verbal ability • Vocabulary test • Synonyms • Antonyms Estimates of World Knowledge across the Life span across 1.2 Shipley Vocabulary 0.8 Synonym Vocabulary Z-scores 0.4 Antonym Vocabulary 0 -0.4 n = 350 -0.8 -1.2 20's 30's 40's 50's 60's Age Groups 70's 80's The Aging Mind The Digit Symbol 1.2 Z-scores 0.8 Letter Comparison Neurobiology: speed, working memory, long term memory Pattern Comparison Letter Rotation 0.4 Line Span Computation Span 0 Reading Span Benton -0.4 Experience: world knowledge Rey Cued Recall -0.8 -1.2 20's Free Recall Shipley Vocabulary 30's 40's 50's 60's Age Groups 70's 80's n = 350 Park, Lautenschlager, Hedden,Davidson, Smith & Smith, 2002. Psychology and Aging Antonym Vocabulary Synonym Vocabulary Changes in Neural Structures with Age with Marked decreases in volume of frontal Marked cortex with age. cortex Moderate decreases in medial temporal Moderate cortex cortex Relatively preserved volume of Relatively visual/associational areas visual/associational Decreased number of dopamine receptors Decreased integrity of white matter Functional Neural Changes with Age with Functional imaging techniques (fMRI and Functional PET) allow us to see neural structures engaged while individuals are performing a cognitive task. cognitive Patterns of Neural Function with Age with Startling dissociation between Startling behavioral and anatomical measures versus neural activity Unlike cognitive function, it appears Unlike neural activity sometimes increases rather than decreases with age. rather Frontal Cortex Reuter-Lorenz, et al., Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2001 Summary Summary Decreased neural selectivity and Decreased specialization in brain with age specialization Brain remodels and reorganizes with age Brain to preserve function. to Some of the decline observed in crosssectional studies may be the result of sectional disease processes. disease ...
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