C_L+Unit+2+Exam+Review+Guide - C & L Unit 2 Exam Review...

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Chapter 5 1. Define instrumental conditioning and instrumental (goal-directed) behavior. What is an operant response? What is a reinforcer? 2. Describe the contributions of E.L. Thorndike. Describe the procedures used in Thorndike’s research. What were the results of Thorndike’s research? What is the Law of Effect? 3. Explain discrete-trial methods of instrumental conditioning. Explain how running speed, latency, and percentage of correct responses can be used to quantify behavior in discreet-trials. 4. Describe the contributions of B.F. Skinner. 5. Explain free-operant methods of instrumental conditioning. Describe magazine training. Define operants and explain how they are used to measure behavior in free operant methods. What does it mean to reinforce successive approximations of the final target behavior? Explain how such shaping is conducted. Explain how response rate is used to measure behavior in free operant methods. 6. What are appetitive and aversive stimuli? Whether result of a conditioned procedure is an increase or a decrease in rate of responding depends on what two factors? 7. Compare positive and negative response-reinforcer contingencies. How do these contingencies contribute to the classification of instrumental conditioning procedures? 8. Define and differentiate between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Define positive punishment, negative punishment omission training, and differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO). What are the differences between escape and avoidance? Explain how attention can be used to reinforce behavior. How can attention be used in DRO? 9. What are the three elements of instrumental conditioning? 10. How does the nature of the response determine the results of positive reinforcement procedures? Compare the evidence for behavioral variability and stereotypy. What evidence is there that variability can be conditioned? 11. What is meant by relevance or belongingness in instrumental conditioning? How can belongingness influence animal learning? What is instinctive drift? Why does the effectiveness of an instrumental conditioning procedure depend on the compatibility of that response with the pre-existing organization of the behavioral system? What evidence do we have that this is true? 12. How do the following factors determine the effects of the reinforce on performance of the instrumental behavior: a. quantity of the reinforce b. shifts in the quantity of the reinforce c. quality of the reinforce d. past experience of with other reinforcers 13. Explain positive contrast, successive positive contrast, negative contrast, and successive negative contrast. 14.
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This note was uploaded on 11/28/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830:311 taught by Professor Rovee-collier during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

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C_L+Unit+2+Exam+Review+Guide - C & L Unit 2 Exam Review...

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