Conditioning+and+Learning+Unit+1+Exam+Review+Guide

Conditioning+and+Learning+Unit+1+Exam+Review+Guide -...

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Conditioning and Learning Unit 1 Exam Review Guide Dr. David Stout Chapter 1 key terms, concepts, and names René Descartes declarative and episodic learning procedural learning free will Cartesian dualism reflex arc pineal gland association nativism hedonism John Locke tabula rasa empiricism Thomas Hobbes rules of associations Aristotle contiguity similarity contrast Thomas Brown secondary laws of associations intensity of stimulus frequency of pairing recency of pairing number of other pairings similarity to other pairing Hermann Ebbinghaus nonsense syllables Charles Bell Francois Magendie sensory and motor nerves John Swammerdam M. Sechenov Ivan Pavlov comparative cognition Charles Darwin evolution George Romanes definition of intelligence functional neurology nervism animal models of human behaviors Dollard and Miller definition of learning performance learning-performance distinction fatigue change in stimulus conditions motivation maturation experimental research methods observational research methods general-process approach ethical treatment of animals animal rights observational techniques computer simulations Chapter 1 questions to help guide your study Describe the contributions to the study of learning made Descartes, Locke, Hobbes, Brown, Aristotle, Ebbinghaus, Sechenov, Pavlov, and Darwin. Describe the two intellectual traditions that were stimulated by Cartesian dualism.
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Describe how historical developments in the study of the mind contributed to the contemporary study of learning. Describe Descartes’ conception of the reflex and how the concept of the reflex has changed since his time. Compare the nativist and empiricist positions. Explain how the research of Sechenov and Pavlov extended Descartes’ early conceptualization of the role reflexes have in human behavior. What three primary sources provided the impetus for research of animal learning? Why is the learning-performance distinction important to researchers of learning phenomena? What types of behavioral change are not considered to be learning? Describe how each fails to meet the definition of learning. Explain Aristotle’s four causes: efficient, material, formal, and final? What is the general-process approach? What evidence supports adopting this approach in studying learning phenomena? Why should caution be used in interpreting this evidence? Describe the rationale for using animal models to study human behavior. What contributes to the validity of such studies? What precautions must be heeded while interpreting the data? Describe the definition of learning and how learning is distinguished from other forms of
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