chapter_5 - Themes of the chapter Conceptualizations of...

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Unformatted text preview: Themes of the chapter Conceptualizations of intelligence have changed over Identifying and accommodating students with special needs Poverty affects children in schools Chapter 5 Individual Differences and Special Needs How was intelligence understood initially, and how have views of intelligence changed over time? How is intelligence measured, and how is it related to achievement? How does talent develop? What happens when students are grouped by ability? See next slide for more questions Guiding Questions In general, how do schools identify children with special needs? How are learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identified? How can teachers bring students with physical challenges fully into classroom life? How do differences in socioeconomic status and culture affect students success in school? Guiding Questions (contd) A teachers challenge is to acknowledge and celebrate the differences among children and work to maximize the growth in each child A teacher must also adhere to the mandates of the curriculum Variability in the Classroom Galton (1869) Interested in the study of individual differences and in eugenics which was a political and scientific movement that argued for selective reproduction of individuals and immigration laws based on intelligence levels Binet (1905) Published (with Simon) the first set of intelligence scales to identify low-achieving students who might need help History of Intelligence Binet (1916) Intelligence is judgment and adapting to ones circumstances Stern with Terman (1920) Devised the intelligent quotient IQ = mental age/chronological age x 100 Goddard (1920) Intelligence is an innate ability, or present at birth History of Intelligence (contd) Spearman (1923) factor analyzed a large number of measures of mental ability and concluded that intelligence was one factor he called g (general) along with a variety of specific factors Thurstone (1957) proposed a model of intelligence with seven primary mental abilities History of Intelligence (contd) Verbal comprehension Word fluency Number facility Spatial visualization Associate memory Perceptual speed Reasoning Thurstones Primary Mental Abilities Cattell (1963) Fluid intelligence the ability to solve problems, figure out what to do when one is not sure what to do, and acquire new skills Crystallized intelligence the use of acquired skills and knowledge such as reading and language skills History of Intelligence (contd) Nature/nurture a shorthand term for the debate over whether mental abilities are developed by the individuals environment (nature) or inherited (nurture) Eugenics a movement that argued that intelligence is genetic, so governments should encourage reproduction of those with high intelligence and not those with lower intelligence Controversies in Intelligence...
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This note was uploaded on 11/28/2011 for the course EDUCATION 300:306 at Rutgers.

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chapter_5 - Themes of the chapter Conceptualizations of...

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