chapter_8 - Chapter 8 Cognitive and Social Cognitive...

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Chapter 8 Cognitive and Social Cognitive Learning Themes of the chapter The relationship between the individual and the environment is the key focus of cognitive theories of learning Cognitive and constructivist theories of learning are related Information processing descriptions of memory and storage of information
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Information-Processing Model The learner develops internal representations of the external world Perceptual and attentional processes limit the amount of information that is available Information is processed in working memory and postentially transferred to long-term memory, from which it can be retrieved later
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Information Processing Limited capacity of various components of the memory system Information processed in working memory Information then transferred to long- term memory for later retrieval
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Perception The meaning attached to sensory information Recognizing objects Objects recognition relies on form Object permanence
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Recognizing Objects Feature analysis – identifying the component features of objects and building a representation of the object from them Bottom-up processing – a process in which a stimulus is analyzed into it components, then assembled into a recognizable pattern, also known as feature analysis Top-down processing – a type of perception in which a person uses what he or she knows about a situation to recognize patterns
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P e rce iv ing the Le te r A
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Attention Focus that is selective and limited Attention involves simultaneous experiences It is selective, withdrawing from some objects and focusing on others Lack of attention is characterized by confusion and diffusion
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Theories of Attention Filter theory – attention compared to a filter; sensory information processed, but quickly reaches a bottleneck; an all-or-none phenomenon Attenuation model – attention to one source of information is reduced when one pays attention to another source Capacity model – limited resource, similar to a reservoir that can be filled up or emptied
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Automaticity and Controlled Processes Automaticity – the ability to perform a task without having to think much about it Controlled processes – cognitive processes that require conscious attention
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Stroop Test Red Green Yellow Blue Brown Black Blue Yellow Red Green Brown Red Blue Yellow Red Green Yellow Blue Brown Black Blue Yellow Red
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Stroop Test Red Green Yellow Blue Brown Black Blue Yellow Red Green Brown Red Blue Yellow Red Green Yellow Blue Brown Black Blue Yellow Red
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Memory Systems Sensory memory – brief memories associated with various senses Short-term memory – a temporary memory storage Long-term memory – storage for indefinite periods of time
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Sensory Memory Iconic memory – memory for visual information Echoic memory – memory for auditory information
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Short Term/Working Memory Capacity: Limited, 5- 9 bits of info Duration: Brief, < 20 seconds
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chapter_8 - Chapter 8 Cognitive and Social Cognitive...

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