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InfantChildClass 11. - The Study of Intelligence The Study of Intelligence • Research in this area raises many of the most controversial issues

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Unformatted text preview: The Study of Intelligence The Study of Intelligence • Research in this area raises many of the most controversial issues about human nature: – The roles of heredity and environment – The influence of ethnic and racial differences – The effects of wealth and poverty – The possibility of improvement Overview • What Is Intelligence? • Measuring Intelligence • Genes, Environment, and the Development of Intelligence • Alternative Perspectives on Intelligence • Acquisition of Academic Skills: Reading, Writing, and Mathematics What Is Intelligence? Intelligence as a Single Trait Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities Intelligence as Multiple Processes A Proposed Resolution Intelligence as a Single Entity • Performance on intellectual tasks are positively correlated, each individual possesses a certain amount of g (general intelligence) , the part of intelligence common to all intellectual tasks • Measures of g correlate with – School achievement – Information-processing speed – Speed of neural transmission in the brain – Knowledge of subjects not studied in school Intelligence as Multiple Entities • Viewing intelligence as more than a single general entity • Two types of intelligence: Crystallized intelligence: Factual knowledge about the world; increases with age Fluid intelligence: The ability to think on the spot to solve problems; declines slowly after adulthood • Measures of each type of intelligence correlate more highly with each other than with measures of the other type of intelligence • Crystallized/fluid distinction offers greater simplicity Intelligence as Multiple Entities • Thurstone portrayed intelligence as involving seven primary mental abilities • Seven primary mental abilities model offers greater precision • Other views see intelligence as comprising numerous distinct processes for taking in, transforming, and applying information Intelligence and IQ Primary mental abilities- seven abilities said by Thurstone to be crucial to intelligence • word fluency • verbal learning • reasoning • spatial visualization • numbering • rote memory • perceptual speed Scores on various tests of a single ability tend to correlate more strongly with each other than do scores on tests of any other ability. Measuring Intelligence The Contents of Intelligence Tests The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) IQ Scores as Predictors of Important Outcomes Intelligence Tests • Measures of intelligence based on observable behavior – Modern intelligence tests, like Binet’s assessment, observe people’s actions on tasks that require a variety of types of intelligence • Intelligence tests measure different aspects of intelligence in children of...
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This note was uploaded on 11/28/2011 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830:331 taught by Professor Yang during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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InfantChildClass 11. - The Study of Intelligence The Study of Intelligence • Research in this area raises many of the most controversial issues

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