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InfantChildClass+12.1 - Self-Esteem Sources of Self-Esteem...

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Self-Esteem Sources of Self-Esteem Self-Esteem in Minority Children Culture and Self-Esteem
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Self-Esteem One’s overall evaluation of the worth of the self and the feelings that this evaluation engenders Related to how satisfied people are with their lives and their overall outlook Starts to develop early and is affected by a variety of factors throughout life
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Sample Items from Susan Harter’s Self- Perception Profile for Children
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Gender Differences in Adolescents’ Concerns
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Factors Contributing to Children’s Self-Esteem
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Development of Self-Esteem Involves the interaction of nature and nurture, including the sociocultural context Heredity contributes to self-esteem in terms of physical appearance, athletic ability, and aspects of intelligence and personality (e.g., self-esteem is more similar in siblings who are closer genetically) One of the most important influences on children’s self-esteem, however, is the approval and support they receive from others.
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Development of Self-Esteem Children begin to become concerned about winning their parents’ love and approval at about age 2 Parents who tend to be accepting and involved with their child and who use supportive yet firm child-rearing practices tend to have children with higher self-esteem Parents who reject their children for unacceptable behavior (rather than condemning the specific behavior) are likely to instill their children with a sense of worthlessness
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Development of Self-Esteem Over the course of childhood, self-esteem is increasingly affected by peer acceptance and is also likely to affect how peers respond to individual children Self-esteem is increasingly affected by internalized standards as children approach adolescence
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Development of Self-Esteem The school and the neighborhood also affect self- esteem A decline in self-esteem is associated with the transition from elementary to junior high school Living in poverty in an urban environment is associated with lower self-esteem among adolescents in the United States
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Ethnicity and Self-Esteem Although young Euro-American children tend to have higher self-esteem than their African-American peers, the trend reverses slightly after age 10 Less is known about the self-esteem of Latino and other minority children Minority-group parents can help their children develop high self-esteem and a sense of well- being by instilling them with pride in their culture, by being supportive, and by helping them to deal with prejudice
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Self-Esteem Across Cultures Self-esteem scores tend to be lower in China, Japan, and Korea than in many Western nations There appear to be fundamental differences between Asian and Western cultures that affect the very meaning of self- esteem
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Peer Relationships
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Peers People of approximately the same age and status Theorists such as Piaget, Vygotsky, and Sullivan have argued that peer relationships provide a unique context for cognitive, social, and emotional development In their view, the equality, reciprocity, cooperation, and intimacy that can develop in peer relationships enhance children’s reasoning ability and their concern for others
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