InfantChildClass+12.8 - Gender Development Overview...

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Gender Development
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Overview Development of Gender Knowledge and Gender-typed Behavior Perspectives on Gender Development Gender Comparisons
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Male vs. Female Across cultures, males are considered to be more instrumental than females, that is, more active, competitive, independent, aggressive and self-assertive Females are considered to be more expressive than males in that they are more emotional, gentle, empathetic, cooperative and concerned with the needs of others This chapter examines how different the sexes actually are in terms of psychological variables, and what might account for the difference
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Development of Gender Knowledge and Gender-typed Behavior Milestones in Gender Development
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Beginnings Infants appear to be able to tell the difference between the sexes using multiple perceptual cues, although the capacity to make this distinction does not mean that they understand anything about what it means to be male or female After entering toddlerhood , children begin showing distinct patterns of gender development
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Development By the latter half of their second year , children begin forming gender-related expectations about the kinds of objects and activities that are typically associated with males and females Between their 2nd and 3rd birthdays , most children come to know which gender group they belong to and by age 3, to use gender terms (e. g., “boy”) in their speech Their behavior also becomes gender- differentiated, particularly in sex-typed play
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Development During the preschool period , children come to show increases in sex-typed play and to spend more of their playtime with same-sex peers They also begin avoiding peers who violate gender-typical patterns of behavior Gender segregation appears to be virtually universal across cultures Across the world, children choose same-sex playmates and spend more of their playtime interacting with other children of the same sex
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Development By mid-elementary school , children have developed a conscious awareness of the biological basis of gender At this point, children also have an understanding of gender as a social category They start to recognize that some children may not want to do things that are typical for their sex Gender segregation persists through the end of elementary school , when boys and girls begin to make tentative overtures toward each other
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Perspectives on Gender Development Biological Perspectives Gender Socialization
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Perspectives Gender has been explained on the basis of biological differences, gender socialization, and cognitive processes (including attention to same-sex models) It is likely that gender development results from the complex interaction of biological, social, and cognitive processes
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Biological Perspectives Include explanations based on Evolution The influence of hormones Sex differences in the organization of the brain
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