On an outing in the Berkshire Mountains, Melville made a major literary contact. He met and formed a close relationship with his neighbor and mentor, Nathaniel Hawthorne, whom he had reviewed in an essay for Literary World. Their friendship, as recorded in Melville's letters, provided Melville with a sounding board and bulwark through his literary career. As a token of his warm feelings, he dedicated Moby-Dick (1851), his fourth and most challenging novel, to Hawthorne. As he expressed to his friend and editor, Evert Duyckinck, two years before composing Moby-Dick: "I love all men who dive. Any fish can swim near the surface, but it takes a great whale to go down stairs five miles or more." The sentiment reflects both the dedicatee and the author as well. Melville attempted to support not only his own family but also his mother and sisters, who moved in
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