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PHYS_2014_Lecture_11

# PHYS_2014_Lecture_11 - Lecture 11 Introduction to the...

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Fall 2010 Oklahoma State University PHYS2014: Benton Lecture 11, Slide 1 1. Kinematics: description of motion 2. Newton’s Three Laws of Motion: explanation of motion in terms of forces 3. Conservation Laws: explanation of motion in terms of conserved mathematical quantities: Linear Momentum , Energy/Work, and Angular Momentum . Lecture 11: Introduction to the Conservation Laws

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Fall 2010 Oklahoma State University PHYS2014: Benton Lecture 11, Slide 2 Conservation Laws Conservation laws are mathematical relationships which we believe to always be true and thus we can use to solve physical problems and get a better understanding of the physical world. General Form of a Conservation Law We say that a quantity is conserved if the total magnitude or amount of that quantity before an event is the same as the total magnitude or amount of the quantity after the event. 0 initial final initial final X X X X = = alternatively
Fall 2010 Oklahoma State University PHYS2014: Benton Lecture 11, Slide 3 0.5 kg 1.5 kg 1.0 kg Let us say I combine a 0.5 kg lump of clay with a 1.0 kg lump of clay. After I combine them, I measure the mass of the new lump and find that it is 1.5 kg. The mass of the clay is said to be conserved when I combine the lumps. The number of lumps of clay is not conserved . I go from having 2 lumps (before) to only 1 lump (after). Conservation of Mass

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Fall 2010 Oklahoma State University PHYS2014: Benton Lecture 11, Slide 4 Well that seems incredibly obvious...what’s the big deal? In Physics, we find that there are a number of somewhat “abstract” quantities that strictly obey conservation laws. Because these quantities are abstract (or at least seem to be abstract when first encountered), these conservation laws and their usefulness in solving physics problems are not always so obvious. However, Conservation Laws are considered to be the most profound and powerful laws in all of Physics. Certainly conservation laws are some of the most useful tools in physics from the point of view of solving problems...as we shall soon see.
Fall 2010 Oklahoma State University PHYS2014: Benton Lecture 11, Slide 5 Some new quantities and their corresponding conservation laws: Energy / Work : The Law of Conservation of Energy Linear Momentum : The Law of Conservation of Linear Momentum Angular Momentum : The Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum Over the course of the next several lectures, we will learn about these quantities and their corresponding conservation laws in detail. Much of the rest of the semester (and the rest of physics) involves the application of these laws.

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Fall 2010 Oklahoma State University PHYS2014: Benton Lecture 11, Slide 6 Let us start with Newton’s 2 nd Law of Motion: This form of Newton’s 2 nd Law of Motion is actually for the special case where the mass does not change.
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PHYS_2014_Lecture_11 - Lecture 11 Introduction to the...

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