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Final Exam Review - Philosophies of Life—PHIL 1213 Final...

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Unformatted text preview: Philosophies of Life—PHIL 1213 Final Exam Review Exam Overview: The exam will consist of five short answer questions (in which you will be asked to define a term, make a distinction, state a principle, etc.), one short essay (in which you will be asked to explain a theory, argument, distinction, etc.), and one longer essay (in which you will be asked to critically discuss a theory, moral problem, etc.). Your grade will be based on accuracy, completeness, clarity, precision, and depth. Questions below are mostly in the form of longer essay questions. Terms appearing in italics below are candidates for short answer questions. Study Questions: While the essay questions on the exam may not be identical to those that appear below, if you are able to ansWer each of the following questions effectively, you should do well on the exam. *1. Define, explain, and clearly distinguish both of the following: “consequentialis‘t moral theory” and “deontological moral theory.” $2. Carefully and fully explain the moral theory of utilitarianism. Be sure to state the principle of utility and show how one might go about applying it (using an example). -, % Carefully and fully explain some important objections to utilitarianism. In the light of these objections, consider the following claim: “The main objections to utilitarianism are really objections to act utilitarianism, and can be aVOided if one embraces rule utilitarianism.” Do you agree with this statement? Why or why not? In your answer, be sure to carefully explain the distinction between act and rule utilitarianism. ' 2&4. Explain the disagreement between Van Den Haag and Reiman concerning the moral legitimacy of capital punishment. Be sure to explain both the “common sense” argument and the “best bet” argument offered by Van Den Haag, and to explain why Reiman finds these arguments unconvincing. Whose reasoning do you find more compelling? Why? 7L 5. Explain Peter Singer’s thesis in his essay, “The Solution to World Poverty,” and explain the main arguments he offers in support of that thesis. What are some important objections to Singer’s argument? Overall, how convincing is Singer’s essay? Explain and defend your answer. 4‘ 6. Explain what Singer means when he says that animals deserve “equal consideration.” What is the difference between equal consideration and identical treatment? Why does Singer believe that animals deserve equal consideration? (Explain his Principle of Equal Consideration of Interests) Do you agree with Singer? Why or why not? Q) Explain what Kant means when he says that “the only thing that 18 good without qualification IS the good will. ” Why doesn’t Kant believe that happiness 1s good without qualification? Intelligence? Courage? 7(8. Carefully explain the distinction that Kant makes between acting from duty and acting merely in accord with duty. Which has moral worth, and why? Be sure to use examples to clarify. 4.9. What is the difference between a categorical imperative and a hypothetical imperative? Given an example of each. 10. State the First Formulation of the Categorical Imperative, and then carefully explain what it means, using at least one example to clarify. ' 7411. State the Second Formulation of the Categorical Imperative, and then carefully explain what it means, using at least one example to clarify. 12. What is “rational autonomy,” and how do you show respect for it? 13. Carefillly explain Hilary Putnam’s reasons for thinking that human cloning for reproductive purposes would be morally unacceptable. Be sure to explain what he means by a moral image, what he takes the moral image of the family to be, and why he thinks that cloning threatens the moral 1mage of the family. 14. Explain the key features of the Ethics of Care How does the ethics of care distinguish itself most clearly from both utilitarianism and Kantianism? ...
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