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Midterm Review - PHIL 1213 Midterm Review Exam Overview The...

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Unformatted text preview: PHIL 1213 Midterm Review Exam Overview: The exam will consist of five short answer questions (in which you will be asked to define a term, theory, make a distinction, state a principle, etc.), one short essay (in which you will be asked to explain a an argument, a distinction, etc.), and one longer essay (in which you will be asked to critically discuss a theory, mOral problem, etc.). Questions below are mostly in the form of essay questions. Terms appearing in italics below are candidates for short answer questions. \L see) @349» @4596 p—i y—: 12. 13. mime m“‘3> Fully ex lain the theory of ethical sub "ectivism. Clair‘iatx 5' ap ropriate exam les, analogies, etc. Be sire to distinguish between sililqsigf’s’tibjgclil sm a% Emolii’zisifil‘D‘i-sbcuss it least two important objections to ethical subjectivism. How compelling are these objections? Explain. Fully explain the theory of cultural relativism. Clarify using appropriate examples, analogies, etc. Discuss at least two objections to cultural relativism. How compelling are they? Explain. Explain the theory of logical positivism, and then explain why logical positivists support ethical subjectivism. What is the most important objection to logical positivism as a theory? Consider the following claim: “We should be respectfiil of everyone’s opinion on moral matters. Only if we listen to each other and take what the other person has to say seriously are we going to open our minds and learn something new about morality.” Explain why someone who makes this claim is neither an ethical subjectivist nor a cultural relativist. As carefully and completely as possible, explain Don Marquis’ main argument for the conclusion that abortion has the same moral status as killing adult human beings. How might a critic object to this argument? Overall, how convincing do you find Marquis’ argument? Explain. . Carefiilly and completely explain Judith Jarvis Thomson’s “famous violinist” case, and explain how she uses the case to defend abortion rights in rape cases. How might a critic respond to this argument? Overall, how convincing do you find Thomson’s argument? Explain. Explain Sally Markowitz’s feminist argument against anti-abortion laws, being sure to explain both her Impermissible Sacrifice Principle and her Feminist Proviso. How convincing do you find her argument? Explain. Define and then carefully and completely explain the Divine Command Theory of ethics. Make use of the Euthyphro Question in your explanation. Specifically, explain how the Euthyphro Question helps to show why those who believe we should always obey God are not necessarily committed to the Divine Command Theory. - Carefiilly explain what is wrong with the following statement: “I believe that God knows what is good for us better than we do ourselves, and that His commandments are intended for our welfare and the welfare of those around us. Even when we don’t understand why we should obey His will, we would be foolish not to. That’s why I accept the Divine Command Theory.” Fully explain at least two important objections to the Divine Command Theory. How convincing do you find these objections? ' . . Define and explain the Natural Law Theory of ethics. How does the natural law theory seek to preserve God’s supremacy while avoiding the problems with the Divine Command Theory? What is sexual orientation, and what do we know about its causes, susceptibility to change, and correlation with psychopathology? What are the main religious arguments for the traditional View that all homosexual sex is morally wrong? What are some difficulties with and possible objections to these arguments? Overall, how compelling do you find these arguments? Explain the difference between civil marriage and religious marriage, and explain its relevance for current debates concerning same-sex marriage. Why do some think that religious opposition to same-sex marriage should be relevant for public policy decision-making despite Church/State separation? Do you agree? Why or why not? Explain Reitan’s argument for the View that the state must extend civil marriage rights to same-sex couples in order to avoid unjustified discrimination. Do you agree? Why or why not? (t5 Explain two or three “secular” justifications for the traditional ban on same-sex marriage. How convincing do you find these justifications? Explain your answer. {£5 Cow‘— Fhewev'. i-Z Sentmacm. $th emissanhmj so ghee 42593.1(, 2 s 45 L01}; 7.3;“; S? ...
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