[ IndianEbooks ] General Studies ( Gaurav Agarwal IAS ).pdf - General Studies For UPSC(Prelims and Mains)and State PCS Exams Gaurav Agarwal Table of

[ IndianEbooks ] General Studies ( Gaurav Agarwal IAS ).pdf...

This preview shows page 1 out of 455 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 455 pages?

Unformatted text preview: General Studies For UPSC (Prelims and Mains)and State PCS Exams Gaurav Agarwal Table of Contents Introduction © Copyright 2019 by Gaurav Agarwal- All rights reserved. Modern Indian History Chapter 1- Socio Religious Awakening Chapter 2 - Land Revenue Systems under British Chapter 3 - Major policies of British Chapter 4 - Institutions under British Chapter 5 - Economic Impact of British Rule Chapter 6 - Freedom of press under British Chapter 7 - Freedom struggle in princely states Chapter 8 - Development of Education under British Chapter 9 - Mutinies against the British Chapter 10 - Rise and Growth of India's Nationalism Chapter 11 - Partition of Bengal and Swadeshi Movement. Chapter 12 - First world war and Ghadar Chapter 13- Home-rule league movement Chapter 14 - Arrival of Gandhi to Non-Cooperation movement Chapter 15 - Growth of left and second phase of revolutionary Movement Chapter 16 - Simon Commission 1927 Chapter 17 - Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM) Chapter 18 - Government of India Act 1935 Chapter 19 - 28 months of congress rule Chapter 20 - World War-II and August Offer Chapter 21 - Congress Response to August Offer, Individual Satyagraha and Cripps Mission Chapter 22 - Quit India Movement Chapter 23- Indian National Army, INA Trials and RIN ratings strke Chapter 24- 1945 Election's to Indian Independence Act Congress won 91% of non-Muslim vote and captured 57 out of 102 seats in the central assembly. Indian Economy Chapter I: National Income Chapter II: Banking and Finance Chapter III: Industry and Public Sector Chapter IV: Foreign Investment, Foreign Trade and Balance of Payment's Chapter V: World Bank Chapter VI: International Monetary Fund (IMF) Chapter VII: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and WTO Chapter VIII: Capital Market Indian Art and Culture Chapter I: Indian Classical Dances Chapter II: Philosophy Chapter III: Paintings Chapter IV: Indian Music Chapter V: Theatre Chapter VI: Puppetry Chapter VII: Calander Chapter VIII: Literature Chapter IX: Temple Architecture Chapter X: Ancient Indian Architecture Chapter XI: Medieval and Modern Architecture Indian Polity Chapter I: Fundamental Rights Chapter II: Fundamental Duties Chapter III: Directive principles of state policy Chapter IV: Judiciary Chapter VI: Union Legislature Chapter VII: Union Executive Chapter VIII: State Executive and Legislature Chapter IX: Center State Relations Chapter X: Panchayati Raj Institutions Chapter XI: Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Bodies Chapter XII: Elections in India and Election Commission Conclusion Introduction This book is designed and targeted to crack UPSC and State PCS exams. This is written with the intention to help IAS and PCS aspirants to cover the syllabus of General Studies so that they can stick to one source and save their time by not referring to multiple sources, the author has covered all the standard textbook material as well as the major coaching institute notes to develop concise and powerful material for the contents of this book. This book along with the current affairs for the year will help you to cover the syllabus for UPSC prelims as well as mains exam for the topics of this book. As a UPSC aspirant you must be informed by now that to crack this exam smart work is more important than hard work, this book helps you do that smart work, to outperform others in a competitive exam like UPSC you need this book. Please solve and apply this book on previous 10 year questions for both prelims and mains, it is essential to have an edge among other aspirants. Thanks again for downloading this book, I hope you’ll enjoy it! © Copyright 2019 by Gaurav Agarwal- All rights reserved. This document is geared towards providing exact and reliable information in regards to the topic and issue covered. The publication is sold with the idea that the publisher is not required to render accounting, officially permitted, or otherwise, qualified services. If advice is necessary, legal or professional, a practiced individual in the profession should be ordered. - From a Declaration of Principles which was accepted and approved equally by a Committee of the American Bar Association and a Committee of Publishers and Associations. In no way is it legal to reproduce, duplicate, or transmit any part of this document in either electronic means or in printed format. Recording of this publication is strictly prohibited and any storage of this document is not allowed unless with written permission from the publisher. All rights reserved. The information provided herein is stated to be truthful and consistent, in that any liability, in terms of inattention or otherwise, by any usage or abuse of any policies, processes, or directions contained within is the solitary and utter responsibility of the recipient reader. Under no circumstances will any legal responsibility or blame be held against the publisher for any reparation, damages, or monetary loss due to the information herein, either directly or indirectly. Respective authors own all copyrights not held by the publisher. The information herein is offered for informational purposes solely, and is universal as so. The presentation of the information is without contract or any type of guarantee assurance. The trademarks that are used are without any consent, and the publication of the trademark is without permission or backing by the trademark owner. All trademarks and brands within this book are for clarifying purposes only and are the owned by the owners themselves, not affiliated with this document. Modern Indian History Chapter 1- Socio Religious Awakening The most important impact of western culture on India was the replacement of a blind faith in current tradition’s, belief's and conventions by a spirit of rationalism. During the 19th century as result of the impact of British rule, there were persistent demands for the removal of social abuses and introduction of social reforms on modern lines. There was also a change brought about in the domain of the literature, which reflected the spirit of socio-religious movement as well as of modern age. So, on the one hand, orthodox Indian opinion and anti-British influences crystallized in the formation of Arya Samaj while on the other hand western humanitarian and rationalist thought helped in the germination of cosmopolitan socio-religious movement's such as Brahma Samaj, Prarthna Samaj and Theosophical Society Causes of the reforms 1. In British rule there was supremacy of civil over military authority in the administrative hierarchy. All these factors created conditions for intellectual growth. 2. Determined bid of Christian missionaries to convert India into Christianity. After Charters act of 1813 was passed, restriction on immigration to India of missionaries was removed and hordes of them came to India. Raja Ram Mohan Roy (RRMY) and his Brahmo Samaj RRMY had good knowledge of languages, Bengali was his mother tongue, he also knew Persian, Arabic, English, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. He had implicit faith in mass education as a soul means of eradicating pernicious social and religious practices and elevating individual character. He established Atmiya Sabha to propagate monotheism and fight against evil practices and customs in Hindu religion. He established Vedanta college in 1825 to teach the Hindu monotheistic doctrines and to foster proper study of Sanskrit. As a realist of his time he was aware that the country was not immediately ready for freedom and therefore viewed British rule as beneficial and he thought that it would prepare people for democratic and constitutional form of government and would help speed up modernizing social and economic life of the country. His Contributions 1. In religion he asked the Hindus to reaffirm the old creed of unity of god as contained in Vedic literature. He laid emphasis on love of mankind, irrespective of color, race, creed and upon service of man as the highest rule of life. 2. Because of his efforts Sati was abolished in 1829 when Lord Bentick passed a govt regulation. Dayabhaga school and not Mitakshara school of Hindu Personal law, allowed greater rights to widows to inherit her deceased husband's property and this was the reason for sati being more prominent in areas such as Bengal where the Dayabhaga school was followed. 3. In 1828 he founded a new religious society the Brahmo Sabha which was later known as Brahmo Samaj, it's aim was to purify hindu religion and to preach monotheism, and it's two pillars were Vedas and Reason. Brahmo samaj laid emphasis on human dignity, opposed idolatry and criticized social evils as sati, child marriage and supported education to woman and widow remarriage. 4. He put his faith in monotheism. 5. He wrote “First gift to Monotheists”. 6. Percept's of Jesus in 1820. In which he separated the miracle stories from teachings of Jesus, thus bringing about the core values of religion 7. He founded a Bengali weekly newspaper in 1821, Sambad Kumadi against the practice of sati, another newspaper he published was Mirat-ul-Akbar. 8. Instead of religious ritual's he promoted charity, morality and union between man of all religion. (DEAR READERS : MAKE NOTE OF NEWSPAPERS STARTED BY LEADERS AS THEY COME IN MATCH THE FOLLOWING AGAIN AND AGAIN IN PRELIMS) Political demands of RRMY 1. He suggested Indianization of Superior Services by including more Indians in the civil services. 2. He called for the separation of the executive from the judiciary. Judicial equality between Indians and Europeans and that trial to be held by jury. 3. As a political activist, Raja Ram Mohan Roy condemned oppressive practices of Bengali Zamindars and demanded fixation of maximum rents. He did not demand its abolition i.e. Abolition of Zamindari system. 4. Abolition of tax on tax free lands and reduction of export duties on Indian goods abroad. 5. Abolition of East India company's trading rights. Henry Vivian Derozio He started young Bengal movement. Followers of Derozio were called Derozian's. He was inspired by French Revolution. He inspired his people to think freely, rationally and oppose decadent custom's and tradition's He was expelled from Hindu college in 1831. He was the first Nationalist poet of Modern India. Limitation's 1. Failed to have a long-term impact. 2. Lack of support base among the masses like peasant's, worker's and artisan's. Debendranath Tagore He was the father of Rabindranath Tagore and he founded Tatvabodhini Sabha (TS) to propagate the Ideas of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. TS and its organ Tatvabodhini patrika promoted systematic study of India’s past in Bengali. Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar He was principal of Sanskrit college and was one of the great social reformers of 19th century Bengal. He opposed child marriages, polygamy but mainly worked for the cause of widow remarriage. Through his relentless efforts Hindu Widow Remarriage Act was passed which legalized the marriages of Hindu widows. His efforts of reforming Indian society were not only limited to Bengal but also contributed to the awakening of Indian society. He set up Bethune college in 1849. Supported Widow remarriage and opposed child remarriage and polygamy. In 1850 he became principle of Sanskrit College and popularized Sanskrit learning for the masses. First lawful Hindu widow remarriage happened in Calcutta in 1856. Dadabhai Naoroji He was leading social reformer of Bombay. He was founder of Parsi law association with aim to reform the Zorastrian religion by agitating for grant of equal legal status to woman for uniform laws of Inheritance and marriage for the Parsis. Bhandarkar, Ranade and Prarthana Samaj Prarthana Samaj was founded in Maharashtra by RG Bhandarkar and Mahadev Govind Ranade, it was powerfully influenced by the Brahmo Samaj. Aim of Prarthana Samaj was to reform Hindu religious thought and practice in the light of modern knowledge. Prarthana samaj preached the worship of one god and tried to free religion of caste orthodoxy and priestly domination. Ramkrishna Paramhansa, Vivekananda and Ramkrishna Mission Ramkrishna Paramhansa was born in 1836 in Hoogly district of Bengal, he was a saint who sought salvation in traditional ways of renunciation, Meditation and Devotion. He believed in oneness of god and considered Rama, Krishna, Hari, Christ, Allah are different names of the same god who is Omnipresent. Swami Vivekananda was his great disciple who was born in well to do family in 1863. Educated in a mission school and college, he distinguished himself in Philosophy. After death of Ramkrishna Paramhansa Vivekananda founded a monastic order in a rented house which was known as Ramkrishna Math or Mission. It was not a religious order but a social service mission based on RKP's concept of worship of god in men and the universal unity of all religions. Vivekananda was a firm believer in Vedanta and practice of scientific knowledge. He restated in simple language India's metaphysical thought in terms of Modern science and philosophy. He represented Hinduism to the parliament of religion's convened at Chicago in 1893. He introduced Vedanta and its spirituality to the west in a series of brilliant lectures in the US and later in England. He applied principles of Vedanta to the affairs of everyday life and he also had a keen sense of patriotism and nationalism which was evident in his writings. Dayanand Saraswati Founded Arya Samaj in 1875, gave the slogan “ Go Back to Vedas’’, wrote the book Satyarth Prakash, which contained Philosophical and Religious Ideas. Opened a network of schools called Dayanand anglo vedic movement's (DAV) in India. Started shuddhi movt's to bring back those Hindu’s converted to Islam and Christianity. Later, it led to growth of communal consciousness. Attack religious superstition and promoted equality of men among different religions and discouraged female inequality. Theosophical Society It was founded in US by Madam HP Blavatsky and colonel HS Olcott they later came to India and formed Headquarters of the society in Adyar Madras in 1886. The original theosophists were westerners who glorified India’s religion and philosophical tradition. Theosophists advocated the revival and strengthening of ancient religion 's of Hinduism, Zoroastrianism’s and Buddhism. They recognized the doctrine of transmigration of soul, they also preached universal brotherhood of man. Theosophical society accepted Hindu beliefs of reincarnation and karma and drew inspiration from the philosophy of Upanishads and Samkhya, yoga and Vedanta schools of thought. In India, the movement became popular with the election of Annie Besant as the first woman president of congress. Annie Besant laid the foundation of Central Hindu College in Banaras (now Varanasi) which later became BHU in 1916. Theosophists as westerners glorifying India’s religious and philosophical traditions gave the muchneeded self-respect to the Indians fighting British colonial rule. Mahadev Govind Ranade Founder member of Indian National Congress and established Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and Prarthana Samaj. He was the editor of Anglo Marathi Daily Paper, Indu-Prakash, he worked for the upliftment of woman through woman education widow remarriage and raising the age of marriage and discouraging caste system. He was the founder of social conference movement 1897. Jyotibha Phule He founded Satyashodhak Samaj (Truth Seeker Society found in 1870) against the upper caste domination and brahmanical supremacy. He belonged to the Mali community, leadership of samaj came from backward classes like Malis, Kundlis etc. Aims of this movement were 1. Social Service. 2. Spread of education among woman and lower class people. 3. Phule aimed at complete abolition of caste system. Female social reformer (Pandita Ramabai) Spoke against child marriage and encouraged girl's education and started Arya Mahila Samaj, to improve conditions of child widow's and woman in general. Established mukti mission in pune as a refuge for young widow's and started Shardha Sadan for providing Housing, Education, Vocational training and Medical Services to widow's. Muslim Movements Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and The Aligarh Movement As per the official view on the revolt of 1857 Muslims were the main conspirators. But later the Britishers thought that Muslims could be used as allies against the rising tide of nationalist political activity represented by the foundation of Indian National Congress, this was to be achieved by offers of thoughtful concessions to the Muslims. Group of Muslims led by Syed Ahmed Khan was ready to allow official patronage to stimulate a process of growth among Indian Muslims through better education and employment opportunities. He was born in 1817, and was a member of judicial service, a member imperial legislative council and earned knighthood in 1888. He started Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College in Aligarh. He wanted to reconcile western education with teachings of Quran. He struggled to improve position of woman through education, opposed purdah, polygamy and easy divorce. He argued Muslims to focus on education and jobs and stay away from politics as it would invoke hostile action from govt. So Aligarh Movementt aimed at spreading modern education and social reform's among Muslim’s. Deoband movement It started in Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh, it aimed to train religious leaders of the Muslim community. In contrast to Aligarh movement this was to moral and religious regeneration of Muslim community. Deoband school was established and instruction's imparted were in original Islamic. The Deoband Movement (1866) was organized by the orthodox section among the Muslim ulema (Mohammad Qasim Nanotavi and Rashid Ahmed Gangohi) as a revivalist movement with the twin objectives of propagating pure teachings of the Quran and the Hadis among Muslims and keeping alive the spirit of jihad against the foreign rulers. On the political front, Deoband School welcomed the formation of Congress and issued fatwa (religious decree) against Sir Syed Ahmed Khan's Mohammaden Anglo-Oriental Association. Sikh Reform Movements Singh Sabha movement was founded in Amritsar in 1873 with two-fold objectives. 1. To make available modern western education to the Sikhs, so Khalsa schools were established. 2. To counter the proselytizing activities of Christian missionaries as well as Hindu revivalist. Akali movement was an offshoot of the sikh sabha movement which was aimed at liberating the Sikh Gurudwaras from corrupt Mahants (priests). In 1921 Govt bowed down before the satyagrahi Akalis and passed Sikh Gurudwara Act in 1922 which gave control of gurudwaras to sikh masses to be administered through Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak committee (SGPC) as the apex body. Keys Affair In keys affair Govt made effort to keep keys of golden temple to which SGPC advised Akalis to launch hartals, eventually govt bowed down and handed keys of Toshakhana of Golden Temple to Baba Kharak Singh who was head of SGPC. Guru Ka Bagh (GKB) gurdwara incident GKB is a place 20 km from Amritsar, a mahant had complained to police when Akalis cut the Khakkar tree from gurudwara land. Police came heavily on Akalis beating them badly but later because of satyagraha of Akalis government gave rights to Aklalis to cut trees from gurudwara property when the entire country was outraged. It was after a result of Akali movt that pro-British feudal leadership of Sikhs was replaced by educated middle class nationalists. Miscellaneous movement's Shri-Narayan Dharm Guru Paripalna Movement(SNDP) 1. Started by Shri Narayana Guru Swami in 1902 in Kerala. 2. Among the Ezhawas of Kerala 3. Aims of SNDP Right to public school. Recruitment to govt services. Access to road and temple entry. Political recognition. Self-Respect Movement Started by E.V Ramaswamy Naikar in 1920's against the domination of Brahmanical class and exploitation of lower castes. Vaikom Satyagraha Led by KP Kesava in 1924 d...
View Full Document

  • Summer '20

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes