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Unformatted text preview: General Studies
For UPSC (Prelims and Mains)and State PCS
Gaurav Agarwal Table of Contents
© Copyright 2019 by Gaurav Agarwal- All rights reserved.
Modern Indian History
Chapter 1- Socio Religious Awakening
Chapter 2 - Land Revenue Systems under British
Chapter 3 - Major policies of British
Chapter 4 - Institutions under British
Chapter 5 - Economic Impact of British Rule
Chapter 6 - Freedom of press under British
Chapter 7 - Freedom struggle in princely states
Chapter 8 - Development of Education under British
Chapter 9 - Mutinies against the British
Chapter 10 - Rise and Growth of India's Nationalism
Chapter 11 - Partition of Bengal and Swadeshi Movement.
Chapter 12 - First world war and Ghadar
Chapter 13- Home-rule league movement
Chapter 14 - Arrival of Gandhi to Non-Cooperation movement
Chapter 15 - Growth of left and second phase of revolutionary Movement
Chapter 16 - Simon Commission 1927
Chapter 17 - Civil Disobedience Movement (CDM)
Chapter 18 - Government of India Act 1935
Chapter 19 - 28 months of congress rule
Chapter 20 - World War-II and August Offer
Chapter 21 - Congress Response to August Offer, Individual Satyagraha
and Cripps Mission
Chapter 22 - Quit India Movement Chapter 23- Indian National Army, INA Trials and RIN ratings strke
Chapter 24- 1945 Election's to Indian Independence Act
Congress won 91% of non-Muslim vote and captured 57 out of 102 seats in
the central assembly.
Chapter I: National Income
Chapter II: Banking and Finance
Chapter III: Industry and Public Sector
Chapter IV: Foreign Investment, Foreign Trade and Balance of Payment's
Chapter V: World Bank
Chapter VI: International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Chapter VII: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and WTO
Chapter VIII: Capital Market
Indian Art and Culture
Chapter I: Indian Classical Dances
Chapter II: Philosophy
Chapter III: Paintings
Chapter IV: Indian Music
Chapter V: Theatre
Chapter VI: Puppetry
Chapter VII: Calander
Chapter VIII: Literature
Chapter IX: Temple Architecture
Chapter X: Ancient Indian Architecture
Chapter XI: Medieval and Modern Architecture
Chapter I: Fundamental Rights Chapter II: Fundamental Duties
Chapter III: Directive principles of state policy
Chapter IV: Judiciary
Chapter VI: Union Legislature
Chapter VII: Union Executive
Chapter VIII: State Executive and Legislature
Chapter IX: Center State Relations
Chapter X: Panchayati Raj Institutions
Chapter XI: Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Bodies
Chapter XII: Elections in India and Election Commission
This book is designed and targeted to crack UPSC and State PCS exams. This
is written with the intention to help IAS and PCS aspirants to cover the
syllabus of General Studies so that they can stick to one source and save their
time by not referring to multiple sources, the author has covered all the
standard textbook material as well as the major coaching institute notes to
develop concise and powerful material for the contents of this book.
This book along with the current affairs for the year will help you to
cover the syllabus for UPSC prelims as well as mains exam for the topics of
this book. As a UPSC aspirant you must be informed by now that to crack
this exam smart work is more important than hard work, this book helps you
do that smart work, to outperform others in a competitive exam like UPSC
you need this book.
Please solve and apply this book on previous 10 year questions for
both prelims and mains, it is essential to have an edge among other aspirants.
Thanks again for downloading this book, I hope you’ll enjoy it! © Copyright 2019 by Gaurav Agarwal- All rights
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are the owned by the owners themselves, not affiliated with this document. Modern Indian History Chapter 1- Socio Religious Awakening
The most important impact of western culture on India was the replacement
of a blind faith in current tradition’s, belief's and conventions by a spirit of
During the 19th century as result of the impact of British rule, there were
persistent demands for the removal of social abuses and introduction of social
reforms on modern lines.
There was also a change brought about in the domain of the literature, which
reflected the spirit of socio-religious movement as well as of modern age.
So, on the one hand, orthodox Indian opinion and anti-British influences
crystallized in the formation of Arya Samaj while on the other hand western
humanitarian and rationalist thought helped in the germination of
cosmopolitan socio-religious movement's such as Brahma Samaj, Prarthna
Samaj and Theosophical Society
Causes of the reforms
1. In British rule there was supremacy of civil over military authority in the
administrative hierarchy. All these factors created conditions for intellectual
2. Determined bid of Christian missionaries to convert India into Christianity.
After Charters act of 1813 was passed, restriction on immigration to India of
missionaries was removed and hordes of them came to India. Raja Ram Mohan Roy (RRMY) and his Brahmo Samaj
RRMY had good knowledge of languages, Bengali was his mother tongue, he
also knew Persian, Arabic, English, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. He had
implicit faith in mass education as a soul means of eradicating pernicious
social and religious practices and elevating individual character.
He established Atmiya Sabha to propagate monotheism and fight
against evil practices and customs in Hindu religion.
He established Vedanta college in 1825 to teach the Hindu
monotheistic doctrines and to foster proper study of Sanskrit.
As a realist of his time he was aware that the country was not
immediately ready for freedom and therefore viewed British rule
as beneficial and he thought that it would prepare people for
democratic and constitutional form of government and would help
speed up modernizing social and economic life of the country.
1. In religion he asked the Hindus to reaffirm the old creed of unity of god as
contained in Vedic literature. He laid emphasis on love of mankind,
irrespective of color, race, creed and upon service of man as the highest rule
2. Because of his efforts Sati was abolished in 1829 when Lord Bentick
passed a govt regulation.
Dayabhaga school and not Mitakshara school of Hindu Personal law, allowed
greater rights to widows to inherit her deceased husband's property and this
was the reason for sati being more prominent in areas such as Bengal where
the Dayabhaga school was followed.
3. In 1828 he founded a new religious society the Brahmo Sabha which was
later known as Brahmo Samaj, it's aim was to purify hindu religion and to
preach monotheism, and it's two pillars were Vedas and Reason. Brahmo
samaj laid emphasis on human dignity, opposed idolatry and criticized social
evils as sati, child marriage and supported education to woman and widow
remarriage. 4. He put his faith in monotheism.
5. He wrote “First gift to Monotheists”.
6. Percept's of Jesus in 1820. In which he separated the miracle stories from
teachings of Jesus, thus bringing about the core values of religion
7. He founded a Bengali weekly newspaper in 1821, Sambad Kumadi against
the practice of sati, another newspaper he published was Mirat-ul-Akbar.
8. Instead of religious ritual's he promoted charity, morality and union
between man of all religion.
(DEAR READERS : MAKE NOTE OF NEWSPAPERS STARTED BY
LEADERS AS THEY COME IN MATCH THE FOLLOWING AGAIN AND
AGAIN IN PRELIMS)
Political demands of RRMY
1. He suggested Indianization of Superior Services by including more
Indians in the civil services.
2. He called for the separation of the executive from the
judiciary. Judicial equality between Indians and Europeans and
that trial to be held by jury.
3. As a political activist, Raja Ram Mohan Roy condemned
oppressive practices of Bengali Zamindars and demanded fixation
of maximum rents. He did not demand its abolition i.e. Abolition
of Zamindari system.
4. Abolition of tax on tax free lands and reduction of export duties on
Indian goods abroad.
5. Abolition of East India company's trading rights.
Henry Vivian Derozio
He started young Bengal movement.
Followers of Derozio were called Derozian's.
He was inspired by French Revolution.
He inspired his people to think freely, rationally and oppose decadent custom's and tradition's
He was expelled from Hindu college in 1831.
He was the first Nationalist poet of Modern India.
1. Failed to have a long-term impact.
2. Lack of support base among the masses like peasant's, worker's
He was the father of Rabindranath Tagore and he founded Tatvabodhini
Sabha (TS) to propagate the Ideas of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. TS and its organ
Tatvabodhini patrika promoted systematic study of India’s past in Bengali.
Ishwar Chandra Vidya Sagar
He was principal of Sanskrit college and was one of the great social
reformers of 19th century Bengal. He opposed child marriages, polygamy but
mainly worked for the cause of widow remarriage.
Through his relentless efforts Hindu Widow Remarriage Act was passed
which legalized the marriages of Hindu widows. His efforts of reforming
Indian society were not only limited to Bengal but also contributed to the
awakening of Indian society.
He set up Bethune college in 1849.
Supported Widow remarriage and opposed child remarriage and
In 1850 he became principle of Sanskrit College and popularized
Sanskrit learning for the masses.
First lawful Hindu widow remarriage happened in Calcutta in
He was leading social reformer of Bombay. He was founder of Parsi law association with aim to reform the Zorastrian religion by agitating for grant of
equal legal status to woman for uniform laws of Inheritance and marriage for
Bhandarkar, Ranade and Prarthana Samaj
Prarthana Samaj was founded in Maharashtra by RG Bhandarkar
and Mahadev Govind Ranade, it was powerfully influenced by the
Aim of Prarthana Samaj was to reform Hindu religious thought
and practice in the light of modern knowledge.
Prarthana samaj preached the worship of one god and tried to free
religion of caste orthodoxy and priestly domination.
Ramkrishna Paramhansa, Vivekananda and Ramkrishna Mission
Ramkrishna Paramhansa was born in 1836 in Hoogly district of Bengal, he
was a saint who sought salvation in traditional ways of renunciation,
Meditation and Devotion. He believed in oneness of god and considered
Rama, Krishna, Hari, Christ, Allah are different names of the same god who
Swami Vivekananda was his great disciple who was born in well to do family
in 1863. Educated in a mission school and college, he distinguished himself
After death of Ramkrishna Paramhansa Vivekananda founded a monastic
order in a rented house which was known as Ramkrishna Math or Mission. It
was not a religious order but a social service mission based on RKP's concept
of worship of god in men and the universal unity of all religions.
Vivekananda was a firm believer in Vedanta and practice of scientific
knowledge. He restated in simple language India's metaphysical thought in
terms of Modern science and philosophy. He represented Hinduism to the
parliament of religion's convened at Chicago in 1893. He introduced Vedanta
and its spirituality to the west in a series of brilliant lectures in the US and
later in England.
He applied principles of Vedanta to the affairs of everyday life and he also had a keen sense of patriotism and nationalism which was evident in his
Founded Arya Samaj in 1875, gave the slogan “ Go Back to
Vedas’’, wrote the book Satyarth Prakash, which contained
Philosophical and Religious Ideas.
Opened a network of schools called Dayanand anglo vedic
movement's (DAV) in India.
Started shuddhi movt's to bring back those Hindu’s converted to
Islam and Christianity. Later, it led to growth of communal
consciousness. Attack religious superstition and promoted equality
of men among different religions and discouraged female
It was founded in US by Madam HP Blavatsky and colonel HS Olcott they
later came to India and formed Headquarters of the society in Adyar Madras
in 1886. The original theosophists were westerners who glorified India’s
religion and philosophical tradition. Theosophists advocated the revival and
strengthening of ancient religion 's of Hinduism, Zoroastrianism’s and
Buddhism. They recognized the doctrine of transmigration of soul, they also
preached universal brotherhood of man.
Theosophical society accepted Hindu beliefs of reincarnation and karma and
drew inspiration from the philosophy of Upanishads and Samkhya, yoga and
Vedanta schools of thought. In India, the movement became popular with the
election of Annie Besant as the first woman president of congress. Annie
Besant laid the foundation of Central Hindu College in Banaras (now
Varanasi) which later became BHU in 1916. Theosophists as westerners
glorifying India’s religious and philosophical traditions gave the muchneeded self-respect to the Indians fighting British colonial rule.
Mahadev Govind Ranade
Founder member of Indian National Congress and established
Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and Prarthana Samaj. He was the editor of Anglo Marathi Daily Paper, Indu-Prakash, he
worked for the upliftment of woman through woman education
widow remarriage and raising the age of marriage and
discouraging caste system.
He was the founder of social conference movement 1897.
He founded Satyashodhak Samaj (Truth Seeker Society found in
1870) against the upper caste domination and brahmanical
He belonged to the Mali community, leadership of samaj came
from backward classes like Malis, Kundlis etc.
Aims of this movement were
1. Social Service.
2. Spread of education among woman and lower class people.
3. Phule aimed at complete abolition of caste system.
Female social reformer (Pandita Ramabai)
Spoke against child marriage and encouraged girl's education and
started Arya Mahila Samaj, to improve conditions of child widow's
and woman in general. Established mukti mission in pune as a
refuge for young widow's and started Shardha Sadan for providing
Housing, Education, Vocational training and Medical Services to
widow's. Muslim Movements
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and The Aligarh Movement
As per the official view on the revolt of 1857 Muslims were the main
conspirators. But later the Britishers thought that Muslims could be used as
allies against the rising tide of nationalist political activity represented by the
foundation of Indian National Congress, this was to be achieved by offers of
thoughtful concessions to the Muslims. Group of Muslims led by Syed Ahmed Khan was ready to allow official
patronage to stimulate a process of growth among Indian Muslims through
better education and employment opportunities.
He was born in 1817, and was a member of judicial service, a member
imperial legislative council and earned knighthood in 1888. He started
Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College in Aligarh.
He wanted to reconcile western education with teachings of Quran. He
struggled to improve position of woman through education, opposed purdah,
polygamy and easy divorce.
He argued Muslims to focus on education and jobs and stay away from
politics as it would invoke hostile action from govt.
So Aligarh Movementt aimed at spreading modern education and social
reform's among Muslim’s.
It started in Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh, it aimed to train religious leaders of
the Muslim community. In contrast to Aligarh movement this was to moral
and religious regeneration of Muslim community. Deoband school was
established and instruction's imparted were in original Islamic.
The Deoband Movement (1866) was organized by the orthodox
section among the Muslim ulema (Mohammad Qasim Nanotavi
and Rashid Ahmed Gangohi) as a revivalist movement with the
twin objectives of propagating pure teachings of the Quran and the
Hadis among Muslims and keeping alive the spirit of jihad against
the foreign rulers.
On the political front, Deoband School welcomed the formation of
Congress and issued fatwa (religious decree) against Sir Syed
Ahmed Khan's Mohammaden Anglo-Oriental Association.
Sikh Reform Movements
Singh Sabha movement was founded in Amritsar in 1873 with two-fold
objectives. 1. To make available modern western education to the Sikhs, so Khalsa
schools were established.
2. To counter the proselytizing activities of Christian missionaries as well as
Akali movement was an offshoot of the sikh sabha movement which was
aimed at liberating the Sikh Gurudwaras from corrupt Mahants (priests). In
1921 Govt bowed down before the satyagrahi Akalis and passed Sikh
Gurudwara Act in 1922 which gave control of gurudwaras to sikh masses to
be administered through Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak committee
(SGPC) as the apex body.
In keys affair Govt made effort to keep keys of golden temple to which
SGPC advised Akalis to launch hartals, eventually govt bowed down and
handed keys of Toshakhana of Golden Temple to Baba Kharak Singh who
was head of SGPC.
Guru Ka Bagh (GKB) gurdwara incident
GKB is a place 20 km from Amritsar, a mahant had complained to police
when Akalis cut the Khakkar tree from gurudwara land. Police came heavily
on Akalis beating them badly but later because of satyagraha of Akalis
government gave rights to Aklalis to cut trees from gurudwara property when
the entire country was outraged.
It was after a result of Akali movt that pro-British feudal leadership of Sikhs
was replaced by educated middle class nationalists.
Shri-Narayan Dharm Guru Paripalna Movement(SNDP)
1. Started by Shri Narayana Guru Swami in 1902 in Kerala.
2. Among the Ezhawas of Kerala
3. Aims of SNDP
Right to public school. Recruitment to govt services.
Access to road and temple entry.
Started by E.V Ramaswamy Naikar in 1920's against the
domination of Brahmanical class and exploitation of lower castes.
Led by KP Kesava in 1924 d...
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- Summer '20