_Intro_2_ - Bio 230 Introductory Biology Biology I Barry...

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Unformatted text preview: Bio 230 Introductory Biology Biology I Barry Rothman HHHH-221 Wed., 10:30-12:00 10:30Thurs, 2:00-3:00 2:00338338-2418 (no VM) brothman@sfsu.edu brothman@sfsu.edu Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 1 Lance Lund HHHH-128 TuTh, 3:10TuTh, 3:10-4:00 LLund@sfsu.edu LLund@sfsu.edu Overview Syllabus Review Bottom-Up Approach to BottomBiology Atomic Humor Important Points from Chapters 2-4 2 Chapter 5 - Macromolecules Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 2 Important Points Chapters 2-4 2- Isotopes Carbon & Molecular Complexity Molecular Complexity Isomers 3-Dimension Shapes of Molecules 2 Phases of Life: Hydrophilic & Phases of Life: Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Hydrophobic Functional Groups Fig. 2-1: 2Hierarchy of Life (Animal) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 3 Fig. 1-1: Hierarchy of Life (Plant) 1Chloroplast Chlorophyll Epidermis Leaf Leaf X-section Atomic Humor Two atoms bump into each other. One One says “I think I lost an electron!” The other asks, “Are you sure?”, to which the first replies: “I'm positive.” Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 4 Atomic Humor A neutron walks into a bar; he asks asks the bartender, “How much for a beer?” The bartender looks at him, and says “For you, … No charge.” charge Isotopes Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 5 Isotopes Isotopes have same atomic number, but different atomic weights weights Isotopes differ in number of neutrons neutrons Isotopes of an element behave the same in chemical reactions Isotopes In nature, most elements are a mixture of isotopes Example: on Earth, carbon is mixture of 612C, 613C, and 614C Some isotopes are radioactive; i.e. i.e., they decay spontaneously 614C 714N + ß - (electron) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 6 Hydrogen Isotopes - + 3 1H 1 1H 2 1H Tritium + - + - Deuterium Isotopes in Research Rate of DNA Synthesis Vs. Temperature (3H-Thymidine Incorporation) Fig Fig. 2-5a Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 7 Isotopes in Research Scintillation Counting Fig. 2-5b 2- Isotopes in Research Fig. 2-5c 2- Results Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 8 Isotopes in Research Autoradiography Isotopes in Research Fig. 2-6 2- PET Scan (superimposed on MRI) Uses unstable isotopes that have low numbers of neutrons, e.g., 17F. Decay releases a positron, which it annihilates an electron, releasing a gamma ray. Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 9 Molecular Complexity Complexity Due Due Mainly to Carbon Carbon Organic Chemical Diversity Sizes range from one carbon Si (CH4) to thousands (DNA, proteins) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 10 Hydrocarbons Contain just carbon and hydrogen atoms hydrogen atoms Tend to be non-polar (hydronon(hydrophobic); don’t dissolve in water Simplest hydrocarbon is methane: CH4 Fig. C4-4b: More Complex Hydrocarbons C4- Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 11 Fig. C4-4c: More Complex Hydrocarbons C4- Fig. C4-4d: More Complex Hydrocarbons C4- planar Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 12 Hydrocarbons More complex hydrocarbons include fossil fuels include fossil fuels Waxes, fats, and phospholipids contain large hydrocarbon “tails” Fig. 4-5a: 4Fats Have Hydrocarbon Tails C= H= O= Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 13 Isomers Isomers Isomers have the same chemical formula, formula, but different structures In structural isomers some covalent partners are different Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 14 Fig. 4-6a: Structural Isomers 4- C4 H10 Fig. 4-4c: Structural Isomers 4- C4 H8 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 15 Isomers In geometric isomers the covalent partners partners are the same, but the geometry at one or more double bonds is different cis, trans trans Fig. 4-6b: Geometric Isomers 4- cis X trans X X X Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 16 Fig. 49-12a: 11-cis-Retinal 4911- C C Fig. 49-12b: All-trans-Retinal 49All- H C C Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 17 Isomers In stereoisomers, one or more In stereoisomers one or more asymmetric carbons have “mirror“mirror-image” geometry D, L amino acids, sugars Fig. C4-6C: C4Stereoisomers of Alanine Al L Asymmetric Carbon D Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 18 Isomers In enantiomers, all asymmetric In enantiomers all asymmetric carbons carbons have “mirror-image” “mirrorgeometry, making the both molecules mirror images of each other other Fig. 4-7: Enantiomers 4Carboxyl Group (COOH) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 19 L-Dopamine: A Neurotransmitter Fig. 2-18: Synapse 2- L-Dopamine Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 20 3-Dimensional Shapes Shapes of Molecules Molecules Fig. 2-18: Synapse 2- Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 21 Fig. 2-19: Opiates 2- Enkephalin 2-Phases Phases of Life of Life Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 22 Solutions Hydrophilic: “water-loving”; “watermost most polar and ionic substances Salts, many sugars, carbon dioxide, ethyl alcohol, acetic acid Solutions Hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances substances usually don’t form a solution Oil and water form a two-phase twosystem, with least dense material system, with least dense material floating floating on top Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 23 Solutions 2-Phase System Hydrophobic Hydrophilic Cell Oil Water Hydrophobic Membrane Hydrophilic Solutions Functional Functional Grou Groups Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 24 Functional Groups Add unique characteristic to organic molecules Mainly hydrophilic Functional Groups Formula Group Hydroxyl Example Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) Name of Compounds -OH Alcohols (not OH– Hydroxide) HH H-C-C-OH HH Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 25 Functional Groups Group Formula Methyl Name of Compounds -CH3 H H-C-OH H Example Methanol (Methyl Alcohol) Functional Groups Group Formula Ethyl Name of Compounds -CH2-CH3 Example Ethanol (Ethyl Alcohol) HH H-C-C-OH HH Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 26 Functional Groups Group Formula Carbonyl -C=O Functional Groups Group Formula Carbonyl -C=O H Example Propanal Name of Compounds Aldehydes HH O H-C-C-C H HH Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 27 Functional Groups Group Formula Carbonyl O -C-C-C- Example Acetone Name of Compounds Ketones HOH H-C-C-C-H HH Functional Groups Group Formula Carboxyl O -C OH Example Acetic Acid Name of Compounds Organic Acids Acids or Carboxylic Acids H O H-C-C OH H Non-Ionized Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 28 Functional Groups Group Formula Carboxyl Example Acetic Acid -C O OH Name of Compounds Organic Acids Acids or Carboxylic Acids H O H-C-C O – H+ H Ionized Functional Groups Group Formula Ester O -C-O- Example Acetoacetate Name of Compounds Esters HO H O H-C-C-O-C-C OH H H Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 29 Functional Groups Group Formula Amino -NH2 Name of Compounds Organic Bases Bases or Amines H O H Glycine C-C-N H HO H Example (an amino acid) H+ Non-Ionized Functional Groups Group Formula Amino -NH2 Name of Compounds Organic Bases Bases or Amines H H O Glycine C-C-N+-H HO H H Example (an amino acid) Ionized Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 30 Functional Groups Group Formula Name of Compounds Sulfhydryl -SH Thiols Example Ethanethiol HH H-C-C-SH HH Functional Groups Group Formula Phosphate -PO4 Name of Compounds Organic Phosphates O Glycerol – Phosphate H-C-C-C-O-P-O H H H O– Example HO OH H Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 31 Functional Groups HH HH Ring Ring H’s not shown HH Steroids H H H H H H H H H H H HH HH HH Ri H’ Ring H’s shown Bio 230, Summer 2010, Chs 2-4, Page 32 ...
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