CH05_2_ - Macromolecules Overview Synthesis and Degradation...

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Unformatted text preview: Macromolecules Overview Synthesis and Degradation and Degradation Carbohydrates Mono-, di- and polysaccharides Mono- di- Lipids Fats, fatty acids, phospholipids Macromolecules Overview Proteins Roles Amino acids 1o, 2o, 3o, & 4o structure Nucleic Acids Nucleotides DNA & RNA Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 1 Polymers All four types of macromolecule macromolecule are polymers Consist of long chains many similar or identical subunits called monomers called monomers dimers, trimers, oligomers Near-infinite complexity Near- Polymers Condensation synthesis Connecting monomers by covalent bonds requires loss of H from one end and loss of OH from other end Water is made as by-product as bypolymer grows Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 2 Polymers Condensation synthesis Synthesis is catalyzed by enzymes Synthesis uses cellular energy Fig. 5-2a: Condensation Synthesis of Polymer Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 3 Polymers Degradation by hydrolysis Hydrolysis is catalyzed by enzymes Hydrolysis usually releases energy energy Fig. 5-2b: Polymer Degradation by Hydrolysis Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 4 Polymers Degradation by hydrolysis During digestion, many polypolysaccharides, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are hydrolyzed so that monomers and dimers can be absorbed absorbed through the intestinal wall Fig. 5-3: Monosaccharides Structural Isomers Structural Isomers D- D- Structural Isomers D- Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 5 Fig. 5-3: Monosaccharides H C O HO-C-H H-C-OH HO-C-H HO-C-H HO-C-H H L-Glucose D- Enantiomers DStereoisomers D- Fig. 5-4a: D-Glucose Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 6 Fig. 5-4b: -D-Glucose -D-Glucose OH H Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 7 -D-Glucose 6 5 1 2 4 3 -D-Glucose 6 1 5 2 4 3 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 8 -D-Galactose 6 5 1 2 3 4 -D-Glucose OH OH OH 2 3 4 OH 6 1 5 OH O Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 9 -L- Glucose -D- Glucose OH OH OH 3 4 OH 6 2 OH OH OH 2 3 4 OH 1 5 6 1 OH O 5 OH O -L-Glucose OH OH 4 OH 3 6 2 OH 1 5 O OH Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 10 Disaccharides Disaccharides are two monosaccharides monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic (-O-) linkage Lactose = glucose-galactose glucose Sucrose = glucose-fructose glucose Maltose = glucose-glucose glucose- Fig. 5-5a: Maltose 6 6 5 5 3 3 2 6 2 6 5 5 1 4 3 1 4 1 4 2 4 1 3 2 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 11 Maltose 6 5 4 6 5 4 1 1 3 2 2 3 Fig. 5-5b: Sucrose 6 1 5 1 4 3 2 Glucose 2 5 3 4 6 Fructose Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 12 Sucrose 6 5 1 4 4 3 6 5 2 Fructose 1 2 3 Glucose Fig. 5-7bc: Starch vs. Cellulose 6 5 6 5 14 14 4 3 2 3 3 5 2 1 4 4 3 2 3 5 2 3 6 2 1 14 14 3 1 14 2 6 6 5 6 5 5 2 6 3 5 2 6 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 13 Starch O O 1 4 2 1 4 2 O 1 4 2 O 3 3 O 5 5 5 3 Cellulose 2 3 4 4 2 3 4 5 O 1 O 2 3 5 O O 5 1 Fig. 5-6a: Plant Starches Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 14 1 Fig. 5-6a: Chloroplast (TEM) Starch Granules Granules Fig. C5-6b: Animal Starch - Glycogen Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 15 Fig. 5-6b: Liver (TEM) Glycogen Granules Fig. 5-8: Plant Cellulose Fibers Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 16 Fig. 5-10a: Fat Condensation Synthesis Fig. 5-10b: Fat Molecule Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 17 Fig. 5-12ab: Fatty Acids Saturated (C18) HOO-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C Unsaturated (C18) Cis HOO-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C Cis- & Trans-Fatty Acids Cis Oleic Acid (C18) HOO-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C-C Trans Elaidic Acid (C18) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 18 Fig. 5-12ab: Phospholipids Ester Linkages Unsaturated Saturated Fig. 512ab: Phospho lipids Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 19 Saturated vs. Unsaturated Saturated fatty acids raise total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. cholesterol. The most effective replacement for saturated fatty acids in terms of of coronary heart disease outcome are polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid. Saturated Fatty Acids Common name IUPAC name Chemical structure Abbr. Butyric Butanoic acid CH3(CH2)2COOH C4:0 Caproic Hexanoic acid CH3(CH2)4COOH C6:0 Caprylic Octanoic acid CH3(CH2)6COOH C8:0 Capric Decanoic acid CH3(CH2)8COOH C10:0 Lauric Dodecanoic acid CH3(CH2)10COOH C12:0 Myristic Tetradecanoic acid CH3(CH2)12COOH C14:0 Palmitic Hexadecanoic acid CH3(CH2)14COOH C16:0 Stearic Octadecanoic acid CH3(CH2)16COOH C18:0 Arachidic Eicosanoic acid CH3(CH2)18COOH C20:0 Behenic Docosanoic acid CH3(CH2)20COOH C22:0 Lignoceric Tetracosanoic acid CH3(CH2)22COOH C24:0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_acid Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 20 Dietary Fats Saturated Monounsat g/100g g/100g Animal fats 40.8 43.8 54.0 19.8 Vegetable fats 85.2 6.6 45.3 41.6 25.5 21.3 18.8 15.9 14.5 23.2 14.0 69.7 12.7 24.7 11.9 20.2 10.2 12.6 Lard Butter Coconut oil Palm oil Cottonseed oil Wheat germ oil Soya oil Olive oil Corn oil Sunflower oil Safflower oil Rapeseed/Canola oil 5.3 64.3 Polyunsat g/100g Cholesterol mg/100g 9.6 2 .6 93 230 1.7 8.3 48.1 60.7 56.5 11.2 57.8 63.0 72.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24.8 0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatty_acid -3 and trans Fats trans Consumption of -3 fats may reduce reduce the risk of coronary heart disease. Consumption of trans fats trans increases the risk of coronary increases the risk of coronary heart heart disease. Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 21 Fig. 5-12c: Phospholipids Fig. 5-13b: Phospholipid Bilayer Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 22 Fig. 5-14: Cholesterol and Other Steroids Cholesterol -Amino Acids (Unionized Form) -carbon HO N-C-C H R OH H Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 23 -Amino Acids (Ionized Form) -carbon HHO +N-C-C HH RO D- and L-Amino Acids Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 24 Fig. 5-15a: Non-Polar Amino Acids (an Imino Acid) Fig. 5-15b: Polar Amino Acids (S-S Bonds) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 25 Fig. 5-15c: Charged Amino Acids Ionizable Groups Fig. 5-16a: Peptide Synthesis Tyr Ser Cys Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 26 Fig. 5-16b: Peptide Synthesis Tyr Ser Cys Fig. 5-18: Protein Primary Structure (Lysosyme) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 27 Fig. 5-18: Protein Primary Structure (Lysosyme) Informal Post-Bacs & PostUndergrads: Your lab instructor, Ash Baghai, Baghai, is ill again today. Please go to lab as usual to see if an instructor is available. available. If one is not available, please try to squeeze into one of the formal post-bac sections, postheld at 1:15-4:15 pm. 1:15Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 28 Add Codes: The 16 informal post-bacs and 16 undergrad undergrad guests who passed the Bio 230 Qual Exam can get add codes at the end of class. Welcome! Welcome! Fig. 5-21a: Sickle-Cell Anemia HbA/HbS x HbA/HbS 1 HbA/HbA = Normal 2 HbA/HbS = Sickle-Cell Trait 1 HbS/HbS = Sickle-Cell Anemia Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 29 Fig. 5-21b: Sickle-Cell Anemia Sickled Red Blood Cells (LM) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 30 SickleSickle-Cell Anemia Caused by recessive mutation on Hb Hb -chain (Val => Glu). Makes Hb crystalize and RBCs clog capillaries (sickle-cell crisis). (sickle Protects against malaria. against malaria Fig. 5-20a: Protein Secondary Structure -Pleated Sheet -Helix Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 31 Fig. 5-20: -Helix & -Pleated Sheet Fig. 5-20a: Protein Secondary Structure Hydrogen Bonds Peptide Backbone Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 32 Fig. 5-20a: Protein Secondary Structure Hydrogen Bonds -Pleated Sheet Peptide Backbone Fig. 5-22: Protein Tertiary Structure Val Ser 4. Weakest Val 3. Cys Cys 1. Strongest Asp Lys Asp 2. Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 33 Fig. 5-20a: Lysozyme’s 2o and 3o Structure -Pleated Sheet Disulfide Bonds -Helix Fig. 5-19a: Lysozyme 3o Structure (Ribbon Model) Groove Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 34 Fig. 5-19b: Lysozyme 3o Structure (Space-Fill) Groove Fig. 5-20: Protein Quaternary Structure Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 35 Fig. 5-20: Summary Fig. 5-23: Role of Chaperonin in Protein Folding (E. coli) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 36 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 37 Fig. 5-26b: Nucleotide Fig. 5-26c: Organic Bases Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 38 Fig. 5-26c: Nucleic Acid Sugars Fig. 5-26b: Nucleotide 3’ 3’ Attached to 3’-End of Chain 5’ 1’ 4’ 3’ 2’ Next Nucleotide’s PO4 Attaches Here Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 39 Fig. 5-26a: Single Nucleic Acid Chain 5’ 1’ 3’ 5’ 5’ 1’ 3’ 3’ 1’ 5’ 3’ 1’ One Nucleotide (Subunit) Fig. 5-29d: Anti-Parallel Nucleic Acid Chains 3’ 5’ 5’ 3’ Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 40 Fig. 5-30: DNA’s Double Helix and Its Replication Fig. 5-25: Central Dogma of Molecular Biology Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 5, Page 41 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/28/2011 for the course BIOL 230 taught by Professor J.breckler during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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