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CH06_2_ - Mammalian Endothelial Cell(Fluorescent Microscope...

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Unformatted text preview: Mammalian Endothelial Cell (Fluorescent Microscope) Fig. 6-1 10 m Introduction to Cell Biology Cell Basic Structure of Cells Prokaryotic Cell Cell Eukaryotic Cell Endosymbioant Theory Nuclear Membrane Mitochondria Chloroplasts Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 1 Sizes of Cells Fig. 6-2 Features Common To All Cells Cells are the unifying feature Cells are the unifying feature of of all life on Earth Cells have a 3.5 billion year evolutionary history Earliest are prokaryotes Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 2 Features Common To All Cells Plasma Membrane Genetic Information (DNA) Ribosomes & Protein Synthesis Organized metabolism in cytoplasm Two Cell Types Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Location of genetic material of genetic material Prokaryotes: genetic material is in cytoplasm Eukaryotes: genetic material is in nucleus (membrane bound) Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 3 Prokaryotic Cell Genome = all genetic material of a cell = all DNA Fig. 6-6 Model Organism: E. coli Prokaryotic Cells Small (1-10 µm) (1 Unicellular (mostly) Cell Wall, capsule, pili Some are motile w/ flagella Diverse in shape, nutrition etc. Small genome - circular DNA ~1Mb (106 bp) bp) Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 4 Prokaryotic Cells Short generation time and fast evolution No organelles Smaller ribosomes than eukaryotes Prokaryotic cells Fig. 27-7 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 5 Fig. 6-9a DNA in linear chromosomes Animal Cell Cell cytoplasm Plant Cell * * Fig. 6-9b * Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 6 Eukaryotic Cells Membrane-bound nucleus Membrane Mitochondria Chloroplasts Endomembrane system (ER, Golgi etc.) Gol Cytoskeleton (microtubules, microfilaments etc.) Eukaryotic Cells Linear chromosomes Life cycles with mitosis, meiosis and sexual reproduction Advantages of sexual reproduction? Greater genetic variation genetic variation Better adaptation to changes Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 7 Endosymbiosis Model for origin of eukaryotes Fig. 28-3 Endosymbiosis Model for origin of eukaryotes Fig. 28-3b Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 8 Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Plasma membrane in-foldings increated nuclear envelope and created nuclear envelope and endomembrane endomembrane system Endosymbiosis Mitochondria evolved from aerobic bacteria Chloroplasts evolved from photosynthetic bacteria Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Endosymbiosis bacteria were taken up by larger host bacteria were taken up by larger host cell cell bacteria lived symbiotically within cytoplasm of host eventually mitochondria and even chloroplasts chloroplasts became dependent on host cell Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 9 Supporting Evidence Bacteria and mitochondria (mt) & chloroplasts (cp) are similar at chloroplasts cellular and molecular level Size Two membranes membranes Inner membranes Divide by binary fission Supporting Evidence Both have circular DNA molecule (cp (cp genome & mt genome) Both contain protein synthesis machinery (ribosomes & tRNA) Ribosomes of both are susceptible to antibiotics Very similar structure of ribosomes and rRNA Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 10 Cell Biology Structure & Function Plasma Membrane Membrane Nucleus Ribosomes Endomembrane System Mitochondria Chloroplasts Cell Biology Structure & Function Endomembrane System Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles (Plasma membrane) Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 11 Structure of a phospholipid Fig. 5-13 Plasma Membrane Fig. 6-8 -controls in/out passage -holds proteins in place Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 12 -contains DNA -DNA replication -transcription DNA>RNA -ribosome subunit production The Nucleus Ribosome Assembly DNA+protein Fig. 6-10a The nucleus and its envelope Fig. 6-10b Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 13 Ribosomes Protein Synthesis -cytosolic proteins Fig. 6-11 Ribosomes Small subunit Large subunit * Have two subunits: small and large * Made of rRNA and ribosomal protein * Assembled in the nucleolus Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 14 Ribosomes make proteins via translation ribosome protein mRNA Free Ribosomes in cytoplasm cytoplasm cytoplasm make protein Ribosomes + mRNA mt MT CP NUC cp nucleus Amino acid “zip codes” direct proteins to their destinations Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 15 Bound ribosomes in cytoplasm on ER ribosomes Rough ER membrane proteins other proteins 143 Ribosomes in mt & cp also make proteins 8 8 8 8 8 mt 8 8 8 cp Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 16 Endomembrane System Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles (Plasma membrane) Flow from one compartment to another Endomembranes Fig. 6-16 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 17 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Rough ER -ribosomes attach -sugars ~ prots -secreted prots ~ transport vesicles vesicles -membrane prots - membr synthesized Smooth ER -lipid synthesis -carbohydrate metabolism -detoxification -Ca2+ storage Fig. 6-12 The Golgi Apparatus -polarity (cis & trans faces) -sugars modified -secreted polysaccharides synthesized -to plasma membrane -to vacuoles -to lysosomes Fig. 6-13 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 18 Vesicle Fusion with Membrane 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fig. 6-9a DNA in linear chromosomes Animal Cell Cell cytoplasm * Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 19 Lysosomes -digest proteins, fats, polysaccs, nucleic acids nucleic acids -internal pH 5 -digest organelles Fig. 6-14a Lysosomes -digest proteins, fats, polysaccs, nucleic acids nucleic acids -internal pH 5 -digest organelles Fig. 6-14b Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 20 TayTay-Sachs Disease Due to recessive mutation in enzyme that breaks down special enzyme glycolipid glycolipid (ganglioside, GM2) on neuronal membranes. Lipids build up and cause death. May have selective advantage where TB is prevalent. Plant Cell * * * Fig. 6-15 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 21 The plant cell vacuole Storage: -water -organic compounds -ions -pigments -garbage -protective compounds Fig. 6-15 Mitochondria Cristae = inner membrane infoldings -respiratory enzymes Fig. 6-17 In matrix: -respiratory enzymes -mt ribosomes, genome -protein synthesis machinery Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 22 Chloroplasts Thylakoid = additional membrane system -photosynthesis enzymes & molecules thylakoid } grana stacks In stroma: -photosynthesis enzymes -cp ribosomes, genome -protein synthesis machinery Fig. 6-18 Peroxisomes -Single membrane -Oxidize various materials -Generate H2O2 as by-product -Site of adrenoleukodystrophy Fig. 6-19 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 23 Adrenoleukodystrophy X-linked version due to lack of very large chain fatty acid very transporter transporter in peroxisomal membrane. Causes build up of very large chain fatty acids in neurons, causing extensive damage. The Cytoskeleton Structure: protein fibers fibers Fig. 6-20 (25 nm) microtubules Function: 1. Mechanical support 2. Anchorage for organelles and enzymes 3. Cell motility -location change -movement of parts (7 nm) microfilaments Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 24 Table 6-1 Table 6-1 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 25 Table 6-1 Cytoskeleton: Microtubules Moves flagella -> move cell protein Transport vesicle or Moves cell parts protein Fig. 6-21a Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 26 Microtubule doublets ATP Dynein arm Dynein “walking” Cross-linking proteins inside outer doublets Fig. 6-25a ATP Anchorage in cell Effect of cross-linking proteins Wavelike motion Fig. 6-25b Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 27 0.1 µm Outer microtubule doublet Dynein arms Central microtubule Plasma membrane Cross-linking proteins inside outer doublets Microtubules Plasma membrane Basal body Radial spoke 0.5 µm 0.1 µm Triplet Cross section of basal body Fig. 6-24 Direction of swimming Motion of flagella 5 µm Fig. 6-23a Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 28 Direction of organism’s movement Direction of active stroke Direction of recovery stroke Motion of cilia 15 µm Fig. 6-23b Centrosome Microtubule Centrioles 0.25 µm Longitudinal section Microtubules of one centriole Cross section of the other centriole Fig. 6-22 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 29 Table 6-1 Table 6-1 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 30 Table 6-1 Microvillus Plasma membrane Microfilaments (actin filaments) Intermediate filaments 0.25 µm Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 31 Muscle cell cell Actin filament Myosin filament Myosin arm Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction Fig. 6-27a Table 6-1 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 32 Table 6-1 Table 6-1 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 33 Extracellular Structures Plant Cells Cells Cell Wall Plant Cell Junctions Animal Cells Extracellular Matrix Animal cell junctions Plant cell walls Plasmodesmata = intercellular intercellular connections Fig. 6-28 Cell Wall Function: 1. Protection 2. Shape 3. Prevents excess water uptake Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 34 Plant Cell Walls Fig. 6-28 Cell #1 Cell #2 Cellulose in Plant Cell Walls Cellulose microfibrils embedded in: protein & other polysaccharides Fig. 5-8 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 35 Plasma Membrane Molecular structure of lipids hydrophobic tail tail hydrophilic head Phospholipid bilayer hydrophobic region hydrophilic region region held together by hydrophobic interactions Plasma Membrane Fluid mosaic model phospholipid bilayer = fluid bilayer fluid protein molecules embedded hydrophobic part of protein in hydrophobic part of bilayer hydrophilic part of protein in hydrophilic part of protein in hydrophilic hydrophilic part of bilayer Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 36 Plasma Membrane Fluidity phospholipids move rapidly, 2 phospholipids move rapidly m/sec proteins drift more slowly cholesterol stabilizes the membrane making it less fluid making it less fluid Extracellular Matrix (ECM) of an Animal Cell Fig. 6-29a Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 37 Proteoglycan complex Polysaccharide molecule Carbohydrates Core protein Fig. 6-29b Proteoglycan molecule Intercellular junctions in animals Fig. 6-31 Bio 230, Summer, 2010, Ch 6, Page 38 ...
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