CH09_2_ - Overview of ATP Production Cellular Fermentation...

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Unformatted text preview: Overview of ATP Production Cellular Fermentation Respiration Energy flow through living systems systems Four sets of catabolic reactions: Glycolysis NADH Oxidation & Pyruvate NADH Oxidation Pyruvate Reduction Reduction Krebs Cycle Oxidative Phosphorylation Overview of ATP Production Efficiencies of ATP Production Oxidation and Reduction Rxns High energy molecules: ATP, NADH, FADH2 Substrate-Level Phosphorylation Substrate- Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 1 ATP Hydrolysis Fig. 6-8 6- Fig. 9-1: Energy 9Flow in Life Exergonic Exergonic ADP ATP Endergonic ATP ADP Cell Work Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 2 Four Catabolic Reactions Glycolysis Functions under aerobic or anaerobic conditions NADH Oxidation and Pyruvate Pyruvate Reduction Allows glycolysis to proceed under anaerobic conditions Four Catabolic Reactions Krebs Cycle More efficient use of glucose; requires oxidative phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation Requires O2 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 3 The Big Picture Fermentation Respiration (Aerobic) Cellular (Anaerobic) Glycolysis Pyruvate Oxidation & Krebs Cycle Cytoplasm Mitochondrial Matrix Pyruvate Reduction Reduction & NADH Oxidation Electron Transport Transport & Oxidative Phosphorylation Mitochondrial Inner Membrane Cytoplasm Ch 9, p 214 C6 glucose Glycolysis 2 x C3 pyruvate 2ATP 2ADP+Pi 4ADP+Pi 4ATP 2NAD+ Cytoplasm 2NADH Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 4 Glycolysis: All Phases Glycolysis: Phases 1 & 2 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 5 Glycolysis: Phases 1 & 2 Phase: 6C G + P Activation G - 6C G + G P Cleavage 6C P G - P 3C P 3C Glycolysis: Phases 1 & 2 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 6 Glycolysis: Phase: Phases 3 & 4 Ox-Red P P 3C 3C Oxidized G P G + Reduced G + P 3C P P 3C P G - G + Phosphorylation 3C P 3C G - G + 3C 3C Glycolysis: Phases 3 & 4 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 7 P P Glycolysis: Input and Output High Potential Energy Bonds in Fuels -C-CO=O G - -C-H H-H Energy Low Potential Energy Molecules O=C=O H-O-H Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 8 Oxidation & Reduction Oxidation Reactant loses an electron or shares it less of the time Often seen as a loss of an H or gain of an O Usually is an exergonic reaction; free energy is released; G is negative Oxidation & Reduction Reduction Reactant gains an electron or shares it more of the time Often seen as a gain of an H or loss an loss of an O Usually is an endergonic reaction; free energy is gained; G is positive Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 9 Fig. 9-3: Burning Methane 9- Burning Methane H's Reduction (G-) H H-C-H H O=O + Reduction (G-) C's Methane O=C=O Oxidation (G-) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 10 + H-O-H Burning Glucose H H's O C H-C-OH HO-C-H H-C-OH H-C-OH H-C-OH H Reduction (G-) O=O + O=C=O + H-O-H Reduction (G-) C's Glucose Oxidation (G-) Catabolizing Glucose ATP Synthesis By Oxid PO4 H O C H-C-OH HO-C-H + NAD+ + O=O H-C-OH H-C-OH H-C-OH H C's Glucose NADH H's Reduction (G-) O=C=O + H-O-H Reduction (G-) Oxidation (G-) ATP Synthesis By Subst Level PO4 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 11 Fig. 9-4 9- Oxidized Form: NAD+ + 2H+ +2eH 2[H] 2H+ NAD+ + 2H+ + 2eNADH + H+ Fig. 9-4 9- Reduced Form: NADH + H+ H H+ NAD+ + 2H+ + 2eNADH + H+ Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 12 Glycolysis: Phases 3 & 4 P P 3C 3C Oxidized G P Reduced G + G + P 3C P P 3C P G - G + 3C P 3C P G - G + 3C Fig. 9-9f: 9G-3P Oxidation 3C 2 G - G + G + Pi=O Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 13 P Glycolysis Anaerobic Metabolism C6H12O6 2C3H6O3 or 2C2H6O + 2CO2 Glycolysis C6 glucose 2 x C3 pyruvate Cytoplasm 2ADP 2ATP 2NAD+ 2NADH Cellular Work Pyruvate Reduction & NADH Oxidation 2 x C3 pyruvate 2 x C3 lactate or 2C2 + 2C1 EtOH+CO2 Cytoplasm Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 14 Fig. 9-17a: Lactate Fermentation 9- Reduced G+ Oxidized GReduced G+ Fig. 9-17b: Ethanol Fermentation 9- Reduced G+ Oxidized G- Decarboxylation G- Reduced G+ Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 15 Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O 6CO2 + 12H2O Pyruvate Oxidation & Krebs Cycle Glycolysis 2 x C3 2 x C3 C6 glucose pyruvate pyruvate 2ATP 2NAD+ 2NADH CO2 Mitochondrial Matrix Cytoplasm 2ADP 6 x C1 2ADP 2ATP 8NAD+ 8NADH 2FAD 2FADH2 Cellular Work Cellular Work Total ATP = 38 Electron Transort & Oxidative Phosphorylation 24H + 6O2 12 H2O Mitochondrial Inner Membrane 34ADP 34ATP Cellular Work 2 x C3 pyruvate 8 NAD+ 2 FAD 6 x C1 Mitochondrial Matrix 2ADP+Pi Pyruvate Oxidation Oxidation & Krebs Cycle 2 FADH2 FADH CO2 2 ATP 8 NADH Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 16 Pyruvate Oxidation & Krebs Cycle Cytoplasm: 3C G+ GDecarboxylation CoEnzyme A G+ 2C Acetyl-CoA Fig. 9-10: Pyruvate Oxidation 9High pH Low [H+] High [OH-] Reduction G+ Active Transport via Antiport via Antiport OH- GLow pH High [H+] Low [OH-] G+ Decarboxylation S―CoA | Oxidation H Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 17 Pyruvate Oxidation & Krebs Cycle Cytoplasm: G+ G- 3C Decarboxylation CoEnzyme A G+ 4C 2C Acetyl-CoA CoA G- G+ 6C G6C G+ G4C G- G- 5C Decarboxylation 4C G+ G+ Decarboxylation Fig. 9-7: 9SubstrateSubstrate-Level Phosphorylation G- G+ Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 18 Pyruvate Oxidation & Krebs Cycle Cytoplasm: G+ G- 3C Decarboxylation CoEnzyme A G+ 4C 2C Acetyl-CoA CoA G- G+ 6C G6C 4C G+ G4C G- G- 5C 4C G+ FAD G+ G- Decarboxylation G+ Decarboxylation Oxidized Form 2[H] from food Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 19 FADH2 Reduced Form H H Pyruvate Oxidation & Krebs Cycle Cytoplasm: G+ G- 3C Decarboxylation CoEnzyme A G+ 4C G+ 2C Acetyl-CoA CoA G- G+ 6C G- G- 4C 6C G4C G+ G+ G- G4C G- G- 5C 4C G+ Decarboxylation G+ Decarboxylation Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 20 Pyruvate Oxidation & Krebs Cycle Cytoplasm: G+ 3C G- Decarboxylation CoEnzyme A G+ 2C Acetyl-CoA CoA G- 4C G+ G+ 6C G- G- 4C 6C G4C G+ G+ G- G4C G- Substrate-Level Phosphorylation G- 5C Decarboxylation 4C G+ G+ Fig. 9-12: 9Pyruvate Oxidation and Krebs Cycle (detailed) (detailed) Decarboxylation Acetyl CoA CoA—SH NADH +H+ H2O 1 NAD+ 8 Oxaloacetate 2 Malate Citrate Isocitrate NAD+ H2O Citric acid cycle 7 NADH + H+ 3 CO2 Fumarate CoA—SH 6 -Ketoglutarate 4 CoA—SH 5 FADH2 NAD+ FAD Succinate GTP GDP Pi Succinyl CoA NADH + H+ ADP ATP Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 21 CO2 Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O 6CO2 + 12H2O Pyruvate Oxidation & Krebs Cycle Glycolysis 2 x C3 2 x C3 C6 glucose pyruvate pyruvate 2ATP 2NAD+ 2NADH CO2 Mitochondrial Matrix Cytoplasm 2ADP 6 x C1 2ADP 2ATP 8NAD+ 8NADH 2FAD 2FADH2 Cellular Work Cellular Work Total ATP = 38 Electron Transort & Oxidative Phosphorylation 24H + 6O2 12 H2O Mitochondrial Inner Membrane 34ADP 34ATP Cellular Work 24 H & 6 O2 34 ADP & 34 Pi 10NADH & 10 H + 10 2 FADH2 Elect Transp & Oxidative Phosphor Mitochondrial Inner Membr 12 H2O 34 ATP 10 NAD+ 2 FAD Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 22 H2 Combustion vs. Electron Transport Chain G = -58 kcal/mol from food via NADH + H+ G = -53 kcal/mol NADH + H+ => NAD+ + 2H+ + 2e- Fig. 9-13: Energetics of Electron Transport Chain 9- 1 ATP -16 kcal/mol 1 ATP -13 kcal/mol 1 ATP -24 kcal/mol Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 23 Fig. 7-17: 7Mitochondrion High [H+] Elect. Transp. Ox. PO4 Krebs Cycle Low [H+] Fig. 9-15: Electron Transport Chain & 9Oxidative Phosphorylation Inter-Membrane Space H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ 6H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ 2 H+ + ½ O2 + NAD+ + 2 H+ 2H Matrix 2H+ H2O 2H+ H+ pH = 1.0 3ADP+Pi V = -200 mV G = -6 kcal/mole/H+ Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 24 3ATP Fig. 9-15: Electron Transport Chain & 9Oxidative Phosphorylation Inter-Membrane Space H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ + 4H+ H+ H+ H+ 2H+ FeS 2H+ H+ FADH2 2 H+ + ½ O2 H2O H+ FAD + 2 H+ 2ADP+Pi 2ATP Matrix Effect of Cyanide Inter-Membrane Space H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ 2H+ 2H+ 2H+ H+ H+ H+ FeS NAD+ + 2 H+ FADH2 X 2 H+ + ½ O2 H+ FAD + 2 H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ 6H+ H+ H+ H2O H+ 3ADP+Pi Matrix Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 25 3ATP 6H+ Fig. 9-14: ATP 9Synthase INTERMEMBRANE SPACE Half-Channels H+ Stator Rotor Internal rod Catalytic knob ADP + P ATP i MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX Fig. 9-15a: ATP Synthase Experiment 9- Magnetic bead Electromagnet Sample Internal rod Catalytic knob Nickel plate Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 26 Fig. 9-15b: ATP Synthase Experiment 9Rotation in one direction Rotation in opposite direction No rotation rotation 30 25 20 0 Sequential trials Fig. 9-16: Summary of 9Anaerobic Metabolism & Cellular Respiration Oxidation PYRUVATE REDUCTION & NADH OXIDATION Substrate Level Phosphorylation Substrate Level Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 27 Fig. 9-19: 9Protein and Fat Catabolism in Relation to Carbohydrate Catabolism Essential Amino Acids Phenylalanine Tyrosine Valine Threonine Isoleucine Methionine Leucine Lysine Fig. 9Fig. 9-20: Control of Cellular Respiration by way of Negative Feedback Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 28 Vitamins NAD+ made from Niacin FAD made from Vitamin B2 made from Vitamin (Riboflavin) Pyruvate Oxidation uses Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Vitamin Co-Enzyme A made from CoVitamin B3 (Pantothenic Acid) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch9, Page 29 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/28/2011 for the course BIOL 230 taught by Professor J.breckler during the Spring '11 term at S.F. State.

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